The Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey
: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Başbakanı
) was the head of government
of the Republic of Turkey
from 1920 to 2018, who led a political coalition in the Turkish Parliament
and presided over the cabinet
. Throughout the political history of Turkey, functions and powers of the post have changed occasionally.
Premiership in the Ottoman Era
In the Ottoman Empire, the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan
held the title of Grand Vizier
). After the Tanzimat
period in the 19th century, the grand viziers came to assume a role more like that of the prime ministers
of contemporary Western European monarchies. Later, with the Ottoman constitution of 1876
, a parliament
was established to oversee the prime minister, and the prime minister formed a cabinet. With the constitutional amendments that took place during the Second Constitutional Era
, the prime minister was made answerable to the parliament rather than the sultan.
Premiership in the Government of the Grand National Assembly
Premiership in the Republic
Single-party period (1923–1946)
Following the declaration of the republic, the existing constitution of 1921 was amended, conferring the executive authority and the privilege to oversee governmental affairs to the Prime Minister, who was to be appointed by the President of the Republic
Although the Presidency was established as a symbolic office with the President being unaccountable for his actions, Presidents Atatürk
had exercised executive authority as the leader of their party
during the one-party
Multi-party period (1946–2018)
Prior to the general election held in 1950
, the constitution was amended, disallowing the President-elect to remain the leader of their political party. These amendments resulted in the Prime Minister becoming the dominant figure in Turkish politics
, sharply diminishing the role of the President.
After Prime Minister Adnan Menderes was ousted from power as a result of the 1960 Turkish coup d'état
, the newly promulgated Constitution of 1961
reduced the powers of the government considerably, strengthening parliamentary supervision over the cabinet. These features of the constitution resulted in a fractured political system, causing many short-lived coalition governments to be formed until 1980.
In the aftermath of the 1980 Turkish coup d'etat
, Constitution of 1982
(still in use) was implemented. Even though the Constitution of 1982 was quite similar to its predecessor, there were new measures taken to avoid the formation of short-lived coalition governments. These measures included the introduction of 10% electoral threshold, unicameral parliamentary structure, and enforced executive powers. Along with broad executive powers being vested in the post of the Prime Minister, the realm of authority of the cabinet ministries (with the exclusion of the Prime Ministry) was drastically reduced, placing the ministers under the direct supervision of the prime minister.
Later on, numerous amendments were made on the constitution, with the ones of paramount importance being the 2007
, and 2017
. Some of the changes approved by public vote were highly controversial.
Seal of the Prime Minister, in use between 2015 until the office was abolished in 2018.
List of prime ministers
Living former prime ministers
Longest track records
- ^ Karagöz, Serdar (2014-04-14). "De facto semi-presidential system and Erdoğan". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
- ^ "Başbakanlık logosu değişti (Başbakanlığın yeni logosu)". www.hurriyet.com.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 2020-07-12.
Last edited on 23 September 2021, at 17:05
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