Secure Shell - Wikipedia
Secure Shell
"SSH" redirects here. For other uses, see SSH (disambiguation).
Secure Shell (SSH) is a cryptographic network protocol for operating network services securely over an unsecured network.[1] Typical applications include remote command-line, login, and remote command execution, but any network service can be secured with SSH.
Secure Shell
Communication protocol
Purposesecure connection, remote CLI
Developer(s)Tatu Ylönen, Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Introduced1995
OSI layerApplication layer
Port(s)22
RFC(s)RFC 4250, RFC 4251, RFC 4252, RFC 4253, RFC 4254
SSH provides a secure channel over an unsecured network by using a client–server architecture, connecting an SSH client application with an SSH server.[2] The protocol specification distinguishes between two major versions, referred to as SSH-1 and SSH-2. The standard TCP port for SSH is 22. SSH is generally used to access Unix-like operating systems, but it can also be used on Microsoft Windows. Windows 10 uses OpenSSH as its default SSH client and SSH server.[3]
SSH was designed as a replacement for Telnet and for unsecured remote shell protocols such as the Berkeley rsh and the related rlogin and rexec protocols. Those protocols send sensitive information, notably passwords, in plaintext, rendering them susceptible to interception and disclosure using packet analysis.[4] The encryption used by SSH is intended to provide confidentiality and integrity of data over an unsecured network, such as the Internet.
Definition
SSH uses public-key cryptography to authenticate the remote computer and allow it to authenticate the user, if necessary.[2]
There are several ways to use SSH; one is to use automatically generated public-private key pairs to simply encrypt a network connection, and then use password authentication to log on. Another is to use a manually generated public-private key pair to perform the authentication, allowing users or programs to log in without having to specify a password. In this scenario, anyone can produce a matching pair of different keys (public and private). The public key is placed on all computers that must allow access to the owner of the matching private key (the owner keeps the private key secret). While authentication is based on the private key, the key itself is never transferred through the network during authentication. SSH only verifies whether the same person offering the public key also owns the matching private key. In all versions of SSH it is important to verify unknown public keys, i.e. associate the public keys with identities, before accepting them as valid. Accepting an attacker's public key without validation will authorize an unauthorized attacker as a valid user.
Authentication: OpenSSH key management
On Unix-like systems, the list of authorized public keys is typically stored in the home directory of the user that is allowed to log in remotely, in the file ~/.ssh/authorized_keys.​[5] This file is respected by SSH only if it is not writable by anything apart from the owner and root. When the public key is present on the remote end and the matching private key is present on the local end, typing in the password is no longer required. However, for additional security the private key itself can be locked with a passphrase.
The private key can also be looked for in standard places, and its full path can be specified as a command line setting (the option -i for ssh). The ssh-keygen utility produces the public and private keys, always in pairs.
SSH also supports password-based authentication that is encrypted by automatically generated keys. In this case, the attacker could imitate the legitimate server side, ask for the password, and obtain it (man-in-the-middle attack). However, this is possible only if the two sides have never authenticated before, as SSH remembers the key that the server side previously used. The SSH client raises a warning before accepting the key of a new, previously unknown server. Password authentication can be disabled from the server side.
Usage
SSH is typically used to log into a remote machine and execute commands, but it also supports tunneling, forwarding TCP ports and X11 connections; it can transfer files using the associated SSH file transfer (SFTP) or secure copy (SCP) protocols.[2] SSH uses the client–server model.
An SSH client program is typically used for establishing connections to an SSH daemon accepting remote connections. Both are commonly present on most modern operating systems, including macOS, most distributions of Linux, OpenBSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, Solaris and OpenVMS. Notably, versions of Windows prior to Windows 10 version 1709 do not include SSH by default. Proprietary, freeware and open source (e.g. PuTTY,[6] and the version of OpenSSH which is part of Cygwin[7]) versions of various levels of complexity and completeness exist. File managers for UNIX-like systems (e.g. Konqueror) can use the FISH protocol to provide a split-pane GUI with drag-and-drop. The open source Windows program WinSCP[8] provides similar file management (synchronization, copy, remote delete) capability using PuTTY as a back-end. Both WinSCP[9] and PuTTY[10] are available packaged to run directly off a USB drive, without requiring installation on the client machine. Setting up an SSH server in Windows typically involves enabling a feature in Settings app. In Windows 10 version 1709, an official Win32 port of OpenSSH is available.
SSH is important in cloud computing to solve connectivity problems, avoiding the security issues of exposing a cloud-based virtual machine directly on the Internet. An SSH tunnel can provide a secure path over the Internet, through a firewall to a virtual machine.[11]
The IANA has assigned TCP port 22, UDP port 22 and SCTP port 22 for this protocol.[12] IANA had listed the standard TCP port 22 for SSH servers as one of the well-known ports as early as 2001.[13] SSH can also be run using SCTP rather than TCP as the connection oriented transport layer protocol.[14]
History and development
Version 1.x
In 1995, Tatu Ylönen, a researcher at Helsinki University of Technology, Finland, designed the first version of the protocol (now called SSH-1) prompted by a password-sniffing attack at his university network.[15] The goal of SSH was to replace the earlier rlogin, TELNET, FTP[16] and rsh protocols, which did not provide strong authentication nor guarantee confidentiality. Ylönen released his implementation as freeware in July 1995, and the tool quickly gained in popularity. Towards the end of 1995, the SSH user base had grown to 20,000 users in fifty countries.[citation needed]
In December 1995, Ylönen founded SSH Communications Security to market and develop SSH. The original version of the SSH software used various pieces of free software, such as GNU libgmp, but later versions released by SSH Communications Security evolved into increasingly proprietary software.
It was estimated that by the year 2000 the number of users had grown to 2 million.[17]
Version 2.x
"Secsh" was the official Internet Engineering Task Force's (IETF) name for the IETF working group responsible for version 2 of the SSH protocol.[18] In 2006, a revised version of the protocol, SSH-2, was adopted as a standard. This version is incompatible with SSH-1. SSH-2 features both security and feature improvements over SSH-1. Better security, for example, comes through Diffie–Hellman key exchange and strong integrity checking via message authentication codes. New features of SSH-2 include the ability to run any number of shell sessions over a single SSH connection.[19] Due to SSH-2's superiority and popularity over SSH-1, some implementations such as libssh (v0.8.0+),[20] Lsh[21] and Dropbear[22] support only the SSH-2 protocol.
Version 1.99
In January 2006, well after version 2.1 was established, RFC 4253 specified that an SSH server which supports both 2.0 and prior versions of SSH should identify its protoversion as 1.99.[23] This is not an actual version but a method to identify backward compatibility.
OpenSSH and OSSH
In 1999, developers, wanting a free software version to be available, went back to the older 1.2.12 release of the original SSH program, which was the last released under an open source license. Björn Grönvall's OSSH was subsequently developed from this codebase. Shortly thereafter, OpenBSD developers forked Grönvall's code and did extensive work on it, creating OpenSSH, which shipped with the 2.6 release of OpenBSD. From this version, a "portability" branch was formed to port OpenSSH to other operating systems.[24]
As of 2005, OpenSSH was the single most popular SSH implementation, coming by default in a large number of operating systems. OSSH meanwhile has become obsolete.[25] OpenSSH continues to be maintained and supports the SSH-2 protocol, having expunged SSH-1 support from the codebase with the OpenSSH 7.6 release.
Uses
Example of tunneling an X11 application over SSH: the user 'josh' has "SSHed" from the local machine 'foofighter' to the remote machine 'tengwar' to run xeyes.
Logging into OpenWrt via SSH using PuTTY running on Windows.
SSH is a protocol that can be used for many applications across many platforms including most Unix variants (Linux, the BSDs including Apple's macOS, and Solaris), as well as Microsoft Windows. Some of the applications below may require features that are only available or compatible with specific SSH clients or servers. For example, using the SSH protocol to implement a VPN is possible, but presently only with the OpenSSH server and client implementation.
File transfer protocols
The Secure Shell protocols are used in several file transfer mechanisms.
Architecture
Diagram of the SSH-2 binary packet.
The SSH-2 protocol has an internal architecture (defined in RFC 4251) with well-separated layers, namely:
This open architecture provides considerable flexibility, allowing the use of SSH for a variety of purposes beyond a secure shell. The functionality of the transport layer alone is comparable to Transport Layer Security (TLS); the user-authentication layer is highly extensible with custom authentication methods; and the connection layer provides the ability to multiplex many secondary sessions into a single SSH connection, a feature comparable to BEEP and not available in TLS.
Despite popular misconception, SSH is not an implementation of Telnet with cryptography provided by the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
Algorithms
Vulnerabilities
SSH-1
In 1998, a vulnerability was described in SSH 1.5 which allowed the unauthorized insertion of content into an encrypted SSH stream due to insufficient data integrity protection from CRC-32 used in this version of the protocol.[32][33] A fix known as SSH Compensation Attack Detector[34] was introduced into most implementations. Many of these updated implementations contained a new integer overflow vulnerability[35] that allowed attackers to execute arbitrary code with the privileges of the SSH daemon, typically root.
In January 2001 a vulnerability was discovered that allows attackers to modify the last block of an IDEA-encrypted session.[36] The same month, another vulnerability was discovered that allowed a malicious server to forward a client authentication to another server.[37]
Since SSH-1 has inherent design flaws which make it vulnerable, it is now generally considered obsolete and should be avoided by explicitly disabling fallback to SSH-1.[37] Most modern servers and clients support SSH-2.[38]
CBC plaintext recovery
In November 2008, a theoretical vulnerability was discovered for all versions of SSH which allowed recovery of up to 32 bits of plaintext from a block of ciphertext that was encrypted using what was then the standard default encryption mode, CBC.[39] The most straightforward solution is to use CTR, counter mode, instead of CBC mode, since this renders SSH resistant to the attack.[39]
Possible vulnerabilities
On December 28, 2014 Der Spiegel published classified information[40] leaked by whistleblower Edward Snowden which suggests that the National Security Agency may be able to decrypt some SSH traffic. The technical details associated with such a process were not disclosed. An analysis in 2017 of the CIA hacking tools BothanSpy and Gyrfalcon suggested that the SSH protocol itself was not compromised.[41]
Standards documentation
The following RFC publications by the IETF "secsh" working group document SSH-2 as a proposed Internet standard.
It was later modified and expanded by the following publications.
In addition, the OpenSSH project includes several vendor protocol specifications/extensions:
See also
References
  1. ^ T. Ylonen; C. Lonvick (January 2006). The Secure Shell (SSH) Protocol Architecture. Network Working Group of the IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC4251. RFC 4251.
  2. ^ a b c Network Working Group of the IETF, January 2006, RFC 4252, The Secure Shell (SSH) Authentication Protocol
  3. ^ "OpenSSH in Windows". Microsoft Docs. 7 January 2019.
  4. ^ "SSH Hardens the Secure Shell". Serverwatch.com. Archived from the original on 2008-12-23.
  5. ^ "How To Set Up Authorized Keys". Archived from the original on 2011-05-10.
  6. ^ "Download PuTTY - a free SSH and telnet client for Windows". Putty.org. Archived from the original on 2014-05-27. Retrieved 2014-04-28.
  7. ^ "Cygwin Package List". Retrieved January 5, 2016.
  8. ^ "WinSCP home page". Archived from the original on 2014-02-17.
  9. ^ "WinSCP page for PortableApps.com". Archived from the original on 2014-02-16.
  10. ^ "PuTTY page for PortableApps.com". Archived from the original on 2014-02-16.
  11. ^ Amies, A; Wu, C F; Wang, G C; Criveti, M (2012). "Networking on the cloud". IBM developerWorks. Archived from the original on 2013-06-14.
  12. ^ "Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry".
  13. ^ "Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry". iana.org. Archived from the original on 2001-06-04.
  14. ^ Seggelmann, R.; Tuxen, M.; Rathgeb, E.P. (18–20 July 2012). "SSH over SCTP — Optimizing a multi-channel protocol by adapting it to SCTP". Communication Systems, Networks & Digital Signal Processing (CSNDSP), 2012 8th International Symposium on: 1–6. doi​:​10.1109/CSNDSP.2012.6292659​. ISBN 978-1-4577-1473-3. S2CID 8415240.
  15. ^ Tatu Ylönen. "The new skeleton key: changing the locks in your network environment". Archived from the original on 2017-08-20.
  16. ^ Tatu Ylönen. "SSH Port". Archived from the original on 2017-08-03.
  17. ^ Nicholas Rosasco and David Larochelle. "How and Why More Secure Technologies Succeed in Legacy Markets: Lessons from the Success of SSH" (PDF). Quoting Barrett and Silverman, SSH, the Secure Shell: The Definitive Guide, O'Reilly & Associates (2001). Dept. of Computer Science, Univ. of Virginia. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2006-06-25. Retrieved 2006-05-19.
  18. ^ "Secsh Protocol Documents". VanDyke Software, Inc. Archived from the original on 2010-01-13.
  19. ^ "SSH Frequently Asked Questions". Archived from the original on 2004-10-10.
  20. ^ "libssh".
  21. ^ "A GNU implementation of the Secure Shell protocols". Archived from the original on 2012-02-04.
  22. ^ "Dropbear SSH". Archived from the original on 2011-10-14.
  23. ^ "RFC 4253". Section 5. Compatibility With Old SSH Versions. Archived from the original on 2010-07-04., IETF
  24. ^ "OpenSSH: Project History and Credits". openssh.com. 2004-12-22. Archived from the original on 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2014-04-27.
  25. ^ "OSSH Information for VU#419241". CERT Coordination Center. 2006-02-15. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Either way ossh is old and obsolete and I don't recommend its use.
  26. ^ Sobell, Mark (2012). A Practical Guide to Linux Commands, Editors, and Shell Programming (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. pp. 702–704. ISBN 978-0133085044.
  27. ^ RFC 8709
  28. ^ a b Stebila, D.; Green J. (December 2009). "RFC5656 - Elliptic Curve Algorithm Integration in the Secure Shell Transport Layer". Archived from the original on 19 July 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  29. ^ Miller, D.; Valchev, P. (September 3, 2007). "The use of UMAC in the SSH Transport Layer Protocol / draft-miller-secsh-umac-00.txt"​. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2012.
  30. ^ RFC 4253
  31. ^ RFC 5647
  32. ^ "SSH Insertion Attack". Core Security Technologies. Archived from the original on 2011-07-08.
  33. ^ "Vulnerability Note VU#13877 - Weak CRC allows packet injection into SSH sessions encrypted with block ciphers". US CERT. Archived from the original on 2010-07-10.
  34. ^ "SSH CRC-32 Compensation Attack Detector Vulnerability". SecurityFocus. Archived from the original on 2008-07-25.
  35. ^ "Vulnerability Note VU#945216 - SSH CRC32 attack detection code contains remote integer overflow". US CERT. Archived from the original on 2005-10-13.
  36. ^ "Vulnerability Note VU#315308 - Weak CRC allows last block of IDEA-encrypted SSH packet to be changed without notice". US CERT. Archived from the original on 2010-07-11.
  37. ^ a b "Vulnerability Note VU#684820 - SSH-1 allows client authentication to be forwarded by a malicious server to another server". US CERT. Archived from the original on 2009-09-01.
  38. ^ "How to use SSH keys for authentication". Up Cloud. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  39. ^ a b "Vulnerability Note VU#958563 - SSH CBC vulnerability". US CERT. Archived from the original on 2011-06-22.
  40. ^ "Prying Eyes: Inside the NSA's War on Internet Security". Spiegel Online. December 28, 2014. Archived from the original on January 24, 2015.
  41. ^ Ylonen, Tatu (3 August 2017). "BothanSpy & Gyrfalcon - Analysis of CIA hacking tools for SSH". ssh.com. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later.
Further reading
External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to SSH.
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Internet Technologies/SSH
Last edited on 10 September 2021, at 00:24
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Privacy policy
Terms of Use
Desktop
HomeRandomNearbyLog inSettingsDonateAbout WikipediaDisclaimers
LanguageWatchEdit