The Turkish people
, or simply the Turks
) are the world's largest Turkic
ethnic group; they speak various dialects
of the Turkish language
and form a majority in Turkey
and Northern Cyprus
. In addition, centuries-old ethnic Turkish communities
still live across other former territories of the Ottoman Empire
. The ethnic Turks can therefore be distinguished by a number of cultural and regional variants, but do not function as separate ethnic groups.
In particular, the culture of the Anatolian Turks in Asia Minor
underlies the Turkish nationalist
Other Turkish groups include the Rumelian Turks
in the Balkans
; Turkish Cypriots
on the island of Cyprus (in addition to recent "mainland Turks"
); Turkish Meskhetians
originally based in Meskheti
and ethnic Turkish people across the Middle East
where they are also called "Turkmen" or "Turkoman" in the Levant
(e.g. Iraqi Turkmen
, Syrian Turkmen
Consequently, the Turks form the largest minority group in Bulgaria
the second largest minority group in Iraq
and the third largest minority group in Kosovo
They also form substantial communities in the Western Thrace
region of Greece
, the Dobruja
region of Romania
, the Akkar
region in Lebanon
, as well as minority groups in other post-Ottoman Balkan and Middle Eastern countries. Due to mass migrations from the 19th century onward, these Turkish communities have all contributed to the formation of a Turkish diaspora
outside the former Ottoman lands. Thus, the Turks also form the largest ethnic minority group in Austria
and the Netherlands
There are also Turkish communities in other parts of Europe
as well as in North America
, and the Post-Soviet states
Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution
defines a "Turk" as "anyone who is bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship". While the legal use of the term "Turkish" as it pertains to a citizen
of Turkey is different from the term's ethnic definition,
the majority of the Turkish population (an estimated 70-75 percent) is of Turkish ethnicity.
The vast majority of Turks are Muslims
Etymology and definition
The first definite references to the "Turks" mainly come from Chinese
sources which date back to the sixth century. In these sources, "Turk" appears as "Tujue" (Chinese
), which referred to the Göktürks
There are several theories regarding the origin of the ethnonym "Turk". There is claim it may be connected to Herodotus
's (c. 484–425 BC) reference to Targitaos, a king of the Scythians
however, Mayrhofer (apud Lincoln) assigned Iranian etymology for Ταργιτάος Targitaos
from Old Iranian
, meaning "he whose strength is long-lasting".
During the first century AD., Pomponius Mela
refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov
, and Pliny the Elder
lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area.;
yet English archaeologist Ellis Minns
contended that Tyrcae
Τῦρκαι is "a false correction" for Ἱύρκαι Iyrcae
, a people who dwelt beyond the Thyssagetae
, according to Herodotus
, iv. 22)
There are references to certain groups in antiquity whose names might have been foreign transcriptions of Tür(ü)k
such as Togarma
and so on; but the information gap is so substantial that any connection of these ancient people to the modern Turks is not possible.
In the 19th century, the word Türk
referred to Anatolian
peasants. The Ottoman ruling class identified themselves as Ottomans
, not as Turks.
In the late 19th century, as the Ottoman upper classes adopted European ideas of nationalism
, the term Türk
took on a more positive connotation.
Prehistory, Ancient era and Early Middle Ages
The early Turkic peoples
descended from agricultural communities in Northeast Asia
who moved westwards into Mongolia
in the late 3rd millennium BC, where they adopted a pastoral lifestyle.
By the early 1st millennium BC, these peoples had become equestrian nomads
In subsequent centuries, the steppe populations of Central Asia
appear to have been progressively replaced and Turkified
by East Asian
nomadic Turks, moving out of Mongolia.
In Central Asia, the earliest surviving Turkic-language
texts, found on the eighth-century Orkhon inscription monuments
, were erected by the Göktürks
in the sixth century CE, and include words not common to Turkic but found in unrelated Inner Asian languages.
Although the ancient Turks were nomadic
, they traded wool, leather, carpets, and horses for wood, silk, vegetables and grain, as well as having large ironworking stations in the south of the Altai Mountains
during the 600s CE. Most of the Turkic peoples were followers of Tengrism
, sharing the cult of the sky god Tengri
, although there were also adherents of Manichaeism
, Nestorian Christianity
However, during the Muslim conquests
, the Turks entered the Muslim world
proper as slaves
, the booty of Arab raids and conquests.
The Turks began converting to Islam
after the Muslim conquest of Transoxiana
through the efforts of missionaries
, and merchants. Although initiated by the Arabs
, the conversion
of the Turks to Islam was filtered through Persian
and Central Asian culture. Under the Umayyads
, most were domestic servants, whilst under the Abbasid Caliphate
, increasing numbers were trained as soldiers.
By the ninth century, Turkish commanders were leading the caliphs
’ Turkish troops into battle. As the Abbasid Caliphate declined, Turkish officers assumed more military and political power by taking over or establishing provincial dynasties with their own corps of Turkish troops.
In dire straits, the Byzantine Empire turned to the West for help, setting in motion the pleas that led to the First Crusade
Once the Crusaders
, the Seljuk Turks established the Sultanate of Rum
from their new capital, Konya
, in 1097.
By the 12th century, Europeans had begun to call the Anatolian region "Turchia" or "Turkey", the land of the Turks.
The Turkish society in Anatolia was divided into urban, rural and nomadic populations;
(Turkmen) tribes who had arrived into Anatolia at the same time as the Seljuks kept their nomadic ways.
These tribes were more numerous than the Seljuks, and rejecting the sedentary lifestyle, adhered to an Islam impregnated with animism
from their central Asian
steppeland origins, which then mixed with new Christian influences. From this popular and syncretist Islam, with its mystical and revolutionary aspects, sects such as the Alevis
between the Turks and local inhabitants, as well as the conversion
of many to Islam, also increased the Turkish-speaking Muslim population in Anatolia.
By 1243, at the Battle of Köse Dağ
, the Mongols
defeated the Seljuk Turks and became the new rulers of Anatolia, and in 1256, the second Mongol invasion of Anatolia caused widespread destruction. Particularly after 1277, political stability within the Seljuk territories rapidly disintegrated, leading to the strengthening of Turkoman principalities in the western and southern parts of Anatolia called the "beyliks
A map of the independent beyliks
in Anatolia during the early 1300s.
When the Mongols defeated the Seljuk Turks and conquered Anatolia
, the Turks became the vassals
of the Ilkhans
who established their own empire in the vast area which stretched from present-day Afghanistan
to present-day Turkey
As the Mongols occupied more lands in Asia Minor, the Turks moved further into western Anatolia and settled in the Seljuk-Byzantine frontier.
By the last decades of the 13th century, the Ilkhans and their Seljuk vassals lost control over much of Anatolia to these Turkoman peoples
A number of Turkish lords managed to establish themselves as rulers of various principalities
, known as "Beyliks
" or emirates
. Amongst these beyliks, along the Aegean
coast, from north to south, stretched the beyliks of Karasi
. Inland from Teke was Hamid
and east of Karasi was the beylik of Germiyan
To the north-west of Anatolia, around Söğüt
, was the small and, at this stage, insignificant, Ottoman beylik. It was hemmed into the east by other more substantial powers like Karaman
, which ruled from the Kızılırmak River
to the Mediterranean
. Although the Ottomans
was only a small principality among the numerous Turkish beyliks, and thus posed the smallest threat to the Byzantine authority, their location in north-western Anatolia, in the former Byzantine province of Bithynia
, became a fortunate position for their future conquests. The Latins
, who had conquered the city of Constantinople
in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade
, established a Latin Empire
(1204–61), divided the former Byzantine territories in the Balkans
and the Aegean
among themselves, and forced the Byzantine Emperors into exile at Nicaea
). From 1261 onwards, the Byzantines were largely preoccupied with regaining their control in the Balkans.
Toward the end of the 13th century, as Mongol power began to decline, the Turcoman chiefs assumed greater independence.
The Ottoman Empire
was a Turkish empire that lasted from 1299 to 1922.
Under its founder, Osman I
, the nomadic Ottoman beylik expanded along the Sakarya River
and westward towards the Sea of Marmara
. Thus, the population of western Asia Minor
had largely become Turkish
-speaking and Muslim
It was under his son, Orhan I
, who had attacked and conquered the important urban center of Bursa
in 1326, proclaiming it as the Ottoman capital, that the Ottoman Empire
developed considerably. In 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe
and established a foothold on the Gallipoli Peninsula
while at the same time pushing east and taking Ankara
Many Turks from Anatolia began to settle in the region which had been abandoned by the inhabitants who had fled Thrace
before the Ottoman invasion.
However, the Byzantines were not the only ones to suffer from the Ottoman advance for, in the mid-1330s, Orhan annexed the Turkish beylik of Karasi
. This advancement was maintained by Murad I
who more than tripled the territories under his direct rule, reaching some 100,000 square miles (260,000 km2
), evenly distributed in Europe
and Asia Minor
Gains in Anatolia were matched by those in Europe; once the Ottoman forces took Edirne
), which became the capital of the Ottoman Empire in 1365, they opened their way into Bulgaria
in 1371 at the Battle of Maritsa
With the conquests of Thrace
, Macedonia, and Bulgaria, significant numbers of Turkish emigrants settled in these regions.
This form of Ottoman-Turkish colonization
became a very effective method to consolidate their position and power in the Balkans
. The settlers consisted of soldiers, nomads, farmers, artisans and merchants
and other religious functionaries, and administrative personnel.
The loss of almost all Ottoman
territories during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey
, in 1923, produced waves of Turkish refugees, who were known as "Muhacirs
", who fled from hostile regions of the Balkans
, the Black Sea
, the Aegean islands
, the island of Cyprus
, the Sanjak of Alexandretta
, the Middle East
, and the Soviet Union
to migrate to Anatolia
and Eastern Thrace
In 1453, Ottoman armies, under Sultan Mehmed II
, conquered Constantinople
Mehmed reconstructed and repopulated the city, and made it the new Ottoman capital.
After the Fall of Constantinople
, the Ottoman Empire entered a long period of conquest and expansion
with its borders eventually going deep into Europe
, the Middle East
, and North Africa
. Selim I
dramatically expanded the empire's eastern and southern frontiers in the Battle of Chaldiran
and gained recognition as the guardian of the holy cities of Mecca
His successor, Suleiman the Magnificent
, further expanded the conquests after capturing Belgrade
in 1521 and using its territorial base to conquer Hungary
, and other Central European territories, after his victory in the Battle of Mohács
as well as also pushing the frontiers of the empire to the east.
Following Suleiman's death, Ottoman victories continued, albeit less frequently than before. The island of Cyprus
was conquered, in 1571, bolstering Ottoman dominance over the sea routes of the eastern Mediterranean
However, after its defeat at the Battle of Vienna
, in 1683, the Ottoman army was met by ambushes and further defeats; the 1699 Treaty of Karlowitz
, which granted Austria the provinces of Hungary and Transylvania
, marked the first time in history that the Ottoman Empire actually relinquished territory.
By the 19th century, the empire began to decline
uprisings occurred across the empire. Thus, the last quarter of the 19th and the early part of the 20th century saw some 7–9 million Muslim refugees (Turks and some Circassians
, etc.) from the lost territories of the Caucasus
, and the Mediterranean
islands migrate to Anatolia
and Eastern Thrace
By 1913, the government of the Committee of Union and Progress
started a program of forcible Turkification
of non-Turkish minorities.
By 1914, the World War I
broke out, and the Turks scored some success in Gallipoli
during the Battle of the Dardanelles
in 1915. During World War I, the government of the Committee of Union and Progress continued to implement its Turkification policies, which affected non-Turkish minorities, such as the Armenians
during the Armenian genocide
and the Greeks
during various campaigns of ethnic cleansing and expulsion
In 1918, the Ottoman Government agreed to the Mudros Armistice
with the Allies
People on the Anafartalar Boulevard, Ankara
in the 1950s
Throughout the 1920s and the 1930s, Turks, as well as other Muslims
, from the Balkans
, the Black Sea
, the Aegean islands
, the island of Cyprus
, the Sanjak of Alexandretta
), the Middle East
, and the Soviet Union
continued to arrive in Turkey
, most of whom settled in urban north-western Anatolia.
The bulk of these immigrants, known as "Muhacirs
", were the Balkan Turks who faced harassment and discrimination in their homelands.
However, there were still remnants of a Turkish population in many of these countries because the Turkish government wanted to preserve these communities so that the Turkish character of these neighbouring territories could be maintained.
One of the last stages of ethnic Turks immigrating to Turkey was between 1940 and 1990 when about 700,000 Turks arrived from Bulgaria. Today, between a third and a quarter of Turkey's population are the descendants of these immigrants.
Traditional areas of Turkish settlement
The ethnic Turks are the largest ethnic group in Turkey
and number approximately 60 million
to 65 million.
Due to differing historical Turkish migrations to the region, dating from the Seljuk conquests in the 11th century to the continuous Turkish migrations which have persisted to the present day (especially Turkish refugees from neighboring countries), there are various accents and customs which can distinguish the ethnic Turks by geographic sub-groups.
For example, the most significant are the Anatolian Turks in the central core of Asiatic Turkey
whose culture was influential in underlining the roots of the Turkish nationalist ideology.
There are also nomadic Turkic tribes who descend directly from Central Asia
, such as the Yörüks
the Black Sea
Turks in the north whose "speech largely lacks the vowel harmony valued elsewhere";
the descendants of muhacirs
(Turkish "refugees") who fled persecution from former Ottoman territories in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries;
and more recent refugees who have continued to flee discrimination and persecution since the mid-1900s.
Today, approximately 15-20 million Turks living in Turkey are the descendants of refugees from the Balkans;
there are also 1.5 million descendants from Meskheti
and over 600,000 descendants from Cyprus
The Republic of Turkey continues to be a land of migration for ethnic Turkish people fleeing persecution and wars. For example, there are approximately 1 million Syrian Turkmen
living in Turkey due to the current Syrian civil war
The Turkish Cypriots
are the ethnic Turks whose Ottoman Turkish forebears colonized the island of Cyprus
in 1571. About 30,000 Turkish soldiers were given land once they settled in Cyprus, which bequeathed a significant Turkish community. In 1960, a census by the new Republic's government revealed that the Turkish Cypriots formed 18.2% of the island's population.
However, once inter-communal fighting and ethnic tensions between 1963 and 1974 occurred between the Turkish and Greek Cypriots
, known as the "Cyprus conflict
", the Greek Cypriot government conducted a census in 1973, albeit without the Turkish Cypriot populace. A year later, in 1974, the Cypriot government's Department of Statistics and Research estimated the Turkish Cypriot population was 118,000 (or 18.4%).
A coup d'état
in Cyprus on 15 July 1974
by Greeks and Greek Cypriots favoring union with Greece
(also known as "Enosis
") was followed by military intervention
whose troops established Turkish Cypriot control over the northern part of the island.
Hence, census's conducted by the Republic of Cyprus have excluded the Turkish Cypriot population that had settled in the unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Between 1975 and 1981, Turkey
encouraged its own citizens to settle in Northern Cyprus; a report by CIA
suggests that 200,000 of the residents of Cyprus are Turkish.
Ethnic Turks continue to inhabit certain regions of Greece
, North Macedonia
, and Bulgaria
since they first settled there during the Ottoman period. As of 2019, the Turkish population in the Balkans is over 1 million.
The majority of the Rumelian/Balkan Turks are the descendants of Ottoman settlers. However, the first significant wave of Anatolian Turkish settlement to the Balkans dates back to the mass migration of sedentary and nomadic subjects of the Seljuk sultan Kaykaus II
(b. 1237–d. 1279/80) who had fled to the court of Michael VIII Palaiologos
Bosnia and Herzegovina
In 2003 the Parliamentary Assembly of Bosnia and Herzegovina adopted the "Law on the Protection of Rights of Members of National Minorities" which officially protected the Turkish minority's cultural, religious, educational, social, economic, and political freedoms.
The Turkish Montenegrins
form the smallest Turkish minority group in the Balkans. They began to settle in the region following the Ottoman rule of Montenegro
. A historical event took place in 1707 which involved the killing of the Turks in Montenegro as well as the murder of all Muslims. This early example of ethnic cleaning features in the epic poem The Mountain Wreath
After the Ottoman withdrawal, the majority of the remaining Turks emigrated to Istanbul
Today, the remaining Turkish Montenegrins predominately live in the coastal town of Bar
Commonly referred to as the Iraqi Turkmens
, the Turks are the second largest ethnic minority group in Iraq
(i.e. after the Kurds
). The majority are the descendants of Ottoman settlers (e.g. soldiers, traders and civil servants) who were brought into Iraq from Anatolia
Today, most Iraqi Turkmen live in a region they refer to as "Turkmeneli
" which stretches from the northwest to the east at the middle of Iraq with Kirkuk
placed as their cultural capital.
Historically, Turkic migrations to Iraq date back to the 7th century when Turks were recruited in the Umayyad
armies of Ubayd-Allah ibn Ziyad
followed by thousands more Turkmen warriors arriving under the Abbassid
rule. However, most of these Turks became assimilated into the local Arab population.
The next large scale migration occurred under the Great Seljuq Empire
after Sultan Tuğrul Bey
's invasion in 1055.
For the next 150 years, the Seljuk Turks placed large Turkmen communities along the most valuable routes of northern Iraq.
Yet, the largest wave of Turkish migrations occurred under the four centuries of Ottoman
In 1534, Suleiman the Magnificent
within the Ottoman Empire and it became the chief province (eyalet
) responsible for administrative districts in the region. The Ottomans encouraged migration from Anatolia and the settlement of Turks along northern Iraq.
After 89 years of peace, the Ottoman–Safavid War (1623–1639)
saw Murad IV
and taking permanent control over Iraq which resulted in the influx of continuous Turkish settlers until Ottoman rule came to an end in 1919.
After the establishment of the Republic of Turkey
in 1923, the Iraqi Turkmens initially sought for Turkey to annex the Mosul Vilayet
However, they participated in elections for the Constituent Assembly
with the condition of preserving the Turkish character in Kirkuk's administration and the recognition of Turkish
as the liwa's official language.
Although they were recognized as a constitutive entity of Iraq, alongside the Arabs
, in the constitution of 1925, the Iraqi Turkmen were later denied this status.
Thereafter, the Iraqi Turkmen found themselves increasingly discriminated against from the policies of successive regimes, such as the Kirkuk Massacre of 1923, 1947, 1959 and in 1979 when the Ba'th Party
discriminated against the community.
Thus, the position of the Iraqi Turkmens has changed from historically being administrative and business classes of the Ottoman Empire to an increasingly discriminated minority.Arabization
policies have seen Iraqi Turkmens pushed out of their homeland and thus various degrees of suppression and assimilation have ranged from political persecution and exile to terror and ethnic cleansing
Many Iraqi Turkmen have consequently sought refuge in Turkey whilst there has also been increasing migration to Western Europe (especially Denmark
, the Netherlands
and the United Kingdom
) as well as Canada
, the United States
and New Zealand
The Turkish Egyptians
are mostly the descendants of Turkish settlers who arrived during the Ottoman rule of Egypt (1517–1867 and 1867–1914). However, with the exception of the Fatimid
rule of Egypt, the region was ruled from the Tulunid
period (868–905) until 1952 by a succession of individuals who were either of Turkish origin or who had been raised according to the traditions of the Turkish state.
Hence, during the Mamluk Sultanate
, Arabic sources show that the Bahri
period referred to its dynasty as the State of the Turks
: دولة الاتراك
, Dawlat al-Atrāk
; دولة الترك
, Dawlat al-Turk
) or the State of Turkey
, al-Dawla al-Turkiyya
Nonetheless, the Ottoman legacy has been the most significance in the preservation of the Turkish culture in Egypt which still remains visible today.
The Turkish Libyans
form the second largest ethnic minority group in Libya
(i.e. after the Berbers
) and mostly live in Misrata
Some Turkish Libyans also live in more remote areas of the country, such as the Turkish neighborhood of Hay al-Atrak in the town of Awbari
They are the descendants of Turkish settlers who were encouraged to migrate from Anatolia to Libya during the Ottoman rule which lasted between 1555 and 1911.
Today, the city of Misrata
is considered to be the "main center of the Turkish-origin community in Libya";
in total, the Turks form approximately two-thirds (est.270,000
) of Misrata's 400,000 inhabitants.
Consequently, since the Libyan Civil War
erupted in 2011, Misrata became “the bastion of resistance” and Turkish Libyans figured prominently in the war.
In 2014 a former Gaddafi
officer reported to the New York Times
that the civil war was now an "ethnic struggle" between Arab tribes (like the Zintanis
) against those of Turkish ancestry (like the Misuratis), as well as against the Berbers and Circassians.
The Turkish-speaking Syrian Turkmen
form the second largest ethnic minority group in Syria (i.e. after the Kurds
however, some estimates indicated that if Arabized
Turks who no longer speaking Turkish are taken into account then they collectively form the largest ethnic minority in the country.
The majority of Syrian Turkmen are the descendants of Anatolian Turkish settlers who arrived in the region during the Ottoman rule (1516–1918). Today, they mostly live near the Syrian-Turkish border
, stretching from the northwestern governorates of Idlib
to the Raqqa Governorate
. Many also reside in the Turkmen Mountain
, the city of Homs
and its vicinity until Hama
, and the southwestern governorates of Dera'a
) and Quneitra
Turkic migrations to Syria began in the 11th century, especially after the Seljuk Turks
opened the way for mass migration of Turkish nomads once they entered northern Syria in 1071 and after they took Damascus
in 1078 and Aleppo in 1086.
By the 12th century the Turkic Zengid dynasty
continued to settle Turkmes in Aleppo
to confront attacks from the Crusaders
Further migrations occurred once the Mamluks entered Syria in 1260. However, the largest Turkmen migrations occurred after the Ottoman sultan Selim I
conquered Syria in 1516. Turkish migration from Anatolia
to Ottoman Syria
was continuous for almost 400 years, until Ottoman rule ended in 1918.
policies saw the names of Turkish villages in Syria renamed with Arabic names and some Turkmen lands were nationalized and resettled with Arabs near the Turkish border.
A mass exodus of Syrian Turkmen took place between 1945 and 1953, many of which settled in southern Turkey.
Since the Syrian Civil War
(2011–present), many Syrian Turkmen have been internally displaced and many have sought asylum in Turkey
and northern Iraq
as well as several Western European
wearing T-shirts that read: 14 November 1944, We have not forgotten the deportation.
Prior to the Ottoman conquest of Meskheti
in Georgia, hundreds of thousands of Turkic invaders had settled in the region from the thirteenth century.
At this time, the main town, Akhaltsikhe
, was mentioned in sources by the Turkish name "Ak-sika", or ‘White Fortress’. Thus, this accounts for the present day Turkish designation of the region as "Ahıska".
Local leaders were given the Turkish title "Atabek" from which came the fifteenth century name of one of the four kingdoms of what had been Georgia, Samtskhe-Saatabago
, ‘the land of the Atabek called Samtskhe [Meskhetia]’.
In 1555 the Ottomans gained the western part of Meskheti after the Peace of Amasya
treaty, whilst the Safavids
took the eastern part.
Then in 1578 the Ottomans attacked the Safavid controlled area which initiated the Ottoman–Safavid War (1578–1590)
. Meskheti was fully secured into the Ottoman Empire in 1639 after a treaty signed with Iran brought an end to Iranian attempts to take the region. With the arrival of more Turkish colonizers, the Turkish Meskhetian
community increased significantly.
However, once the Ottomans lost control of the region in 1883, many Turkish Meskhetians migrated from Georgia to Turkey. Migrations to Turkey continued after the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)
followed by the Bolshevik Revolution
(1917), and then after Georgia was incorporated into the Soviet Union
During this period, some members of the community also relocated to other Soviet borders, and those who remained in Georgia were targeted by the Sovietisation
Thereafter, during World War II
, the Soviet administration initiated a mass deportation of the remaining 115,000 Turkish Meskhetians in 1944,
forcing them to resettle in the Caucasus and the Central Asian Soviet republics.
As of 2020, the Turks in Germany
number between 4 million and 7 million (i.e. 5–9% of Germany's population).
With approximately 2 million Turks in Berlin
the German capital is the largest Turkish populated city outside Turkey
and the third largest city populated by Turkish people (after Istanbul
Modern immigration of Turks to Western Europe
began with Turkish Cypriots
migrating to the United Kingdom
in the early 1920s when the British Empire
in 1914 and the residents of Cyprus became subjects of the Crown. However, Turkish Cypriot migration increased significantly in the 1940s and 1950s due to the Cyprus conflict
. Conversely, in 1944, Turks who were forcefully deported from Meskheti
during the Second World War
, known as the Meskhetian Turks
, settled in Eastern Europe
(especially in Russia
). By the early 1960s, migration to Western and Northern Europe
increased significantly from Turkey
when Turkish "guest workers
" arrived under a "Labour Export Agreement" with Germany
in 1961, followed by a similar agreement with the Netherlands
in 1964; France
in 1965; and Sweden
More recently, Bulgarian Turks
, Romanian Turks
, and Western Thrace Turks
have also migrated to Western Europe
In 1997 Professor Servet Bayram and Professor Barbara Seels said that there was 10 million Turks living in Western Europe and the Balkans (excluding Cyprus and Turkey).
By 2010, Boris Kharkovsky from the Center for Ethnic and Political Science Studies said that there was up to 15 million Turks living in the European Union
According to Dr Araks Pashayan 10 million "Euro-Turks" alone were living in Germany
, the Netherlands
Yet, there are also significant Turkish communities living in Austria
, the UK
, the Scandinavian
countries, and the Post-Soviet states
In the 2000 United States Census
117,575 Americans voluntarily declared their ethnicity as Turkish.
However, the actual number of Turkish Americans
is considerably larger with most choosing not to declare their ethnicity. Thus, Turkish Americans have been considered to be a "hard to count" community.
In 1996 Professor John J. Grabowski had estimated the number of Turks to be 500,000.
By 2009, they numbered approximately 850,000 to 900,000.
More recently, in 2012, the US Commerce Secretary
, John Bryson
, stated that the Turkish American community was over 1,000,000.
The largest concentration of Turkish Americans are in New York City
, and Rochester, New York
; Washington, D.C.
; and Detroit, Michigan
. In addition, the Turks of South Carolina
, are an Anglicized and isolated community identifying as Turkish in Sumter County
were they have lived for over 200 years.
Regarding the Turkish Canadian
community, Statistics Canada
reports that 63,955 Canadians in the 2016 census listed "Turk" as an ethnic origin, including those who listed more than one origin.
However, the Canadian Ambassador to Turkey, Chris Cooter, said that there was over 100,000 Turkish Canadians in 2018.
The majority live in Ontario
, mostly in Toronto
, and there is also a sizable Turkish community in Montreal, Quebec
A notable scale of Turkish migration to Australia
began in the late 1940s when Turkish Cypriots
began to leave the island of Cyprus
for economic reasons, and then, during the Cyprus conflict
, for political reasons, marking the beginning of a Turkish Cypriot immigration trend to Australia.
The Turkish Cypriot community were the only Muslims
acceptable under the White Australia Policy
many of these early immigrants found jobs working in factories, out in the fields, or building national infrastructure.
In 1967, the governments of Australia and Turkey signed an agreement to allow Turkish citizens to immigrate to Australia.
Prior to this recruitment agreement, there were fewer than 3,000 people of Turkish origin in Australia.
According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics
, nearly 19,000 Turkish immigrants arrived from 1968 to 1974.
They came largely from rural
areas of Turkey, approximately 30% were skilled and 70% were unskilled workers.
However, this changed in the 1980s when the number of skilled Turks applying to enter Australia had increased considerably.
Over the next 35 years the Turkish population rose to almost 100,000.
More than half of the Turkish community settled in Victoria
, mostly in the north-western suburbs of Melbourne
According to the 2006 Australian Census
, 59,402 people claimed Turkish ancestry;
however, this does not show a true reflection of the Turkish Australian
community as it is estimated that between 40,000 and 120,000 Turkish Cypriots
and 150,000 to 200,000 mainland Turks
live in Australia. Furthermore, there has also been ethnic Turks who have migrated to Australia from Bulgaria
and North Macedonia
Due to the ordered deportation of over 115,000 Meskhetian Turks
from their homeland in 1944, during the Second World War
, the majority were settled in the Post-Soviet states
in the Caucasus
and Central Asia
According to the 1989 Soviet Census
, which was the last Soviet Census, 106,000 Meskhetian Turks lived in Uzbekistan
, 50,000 in Kazakhstan
, and 21,000 in Kyrgyzstan
However, in 1989, the Meshetian Turks who had settled in Uzbekistan became the target of a pogrom
in the Fergana valley
, which was the principal destination for Meskhetian Turkish deportees, after an uprising of nationalism by the Uzbeks
The riots had left hundreds of Turks dead or injured and nearly 1,000 properties were destroyed; thus, thousands of Meskhetian Turks were forced into renewed exile
Soviet authorities recorded many Meskhetian Turks as belonging to other nationalities such as "Azeri
", and "Uzbek
The modern standard Turkish is based on the dialect of Istanbul
However, dialectal variation persists, in spite of the levelling
influence of the standard used in mass media and the Turkish education system
since the 1930s.
The terms ağız
often refer to the different types of Turkish dialects.
Countries where Turkish is an official language
Countries where it is recognised as a minority language
Countries where it is recognised as a minority language and co-official in at least one municipality
Today, the modern Turkish language is used as the official language of Turkey
and Northern Cyprus
. It is also an official language in the Republic of Cyprus
, Turkish is recognized as an official language in the municipalities of Prizren
, and Vučitrn
whilst elsewhere in the country it is recognized as a minority language
Similarly, in North Macedonia
Turkish is an official language where they form at least 20% of the population (which includes the Plasnica Municipality
, the Centar Župa Municipality
, and the Mavrovo and Rostuša Municipality
whilst elsewhere in the country it remains a minority language only. Iraq
recognizes Turkish as an official language in all regions where Turks constitute the majority of the population,
and as a minority language elsewhere.
In several countries, Turkish is officially recognized as a minority language
only, including in Bosnia and Herzegovina
However, in Greece
the right to use the Turkish language is only recognized in Western Thrace
; the sizable and longstanding minorities elsewhere in the country (i.e. Rhodes
) do not benefit from this same recognition.
There are also several post-Ottoman nations which do not officially recognize the Turkish language but give rights to Turkish minorities to study in their own language (alongside the compulsory study of the official language of the country); this is practiced in Bulgaria
Various variants of Turkish are also used by millions of Turkish immigrants and their descendants in Western Europe
, however, there is no official recognition in these countries.
There are three major Anatolian Turkish dialect groups spoken in Turkey
: the West Anatolian dialect (roughly to the west of the Euphrates
), the East Anatolian dialect (to the east of the Euphrates), and the North East Anatolian group, which comprises the dialects of the Eastern Black Sea coast, such as Trabzon
, and the littoral districts of Artvin
The Balkan Turkish dialects, also called the Rumelian Turkish dialects, are divided into two main groups: "Western Rumelian Turkish" and "Eastern Rumelian Turkish".
The Western dialects are spoken in North Macedonia
, western Bulgaria
, northern Romania
. The Eastern dialects are spoken in Greece
, northeastern/southern Bulgaria and southeastern Romania.
This division roughly follows through a borderline between west and east Bulgaria, which starts east of Lom
and proceeds southwards to the east of Vratsa
, and turns west reaching south of Kyustendil
close to the Serbian and North Macedonian border.
The eastern dialects lacks some of the phonetic peculiarities found in the western area; thus, its dialects are close to the central Anatolian dialects. The Turkish dialects spoken near the western Black Sea
region (e.g. Ludogorie
, and Bessarabia
) show analogies with northeastern Anatolian Black Sea dialects.
An example of folk music in the Cypriot Turkish dialect.
The Cypriot Turkish dialect
maintained features of the respective local varieties of the Ottoman settlers who mostly came from the Konya-Antalya-Adana region;
furthermore, Cypriot Turkish was also influenced by Cypriot Greek
Today, the varieties spoken in Northern Cyprus are increasingly influenced by standard Turkish.The Cypriot Turkish dialect is being exposed to increasing standard Turkish through immigration from Turkey
, new mass media, and new educational institutions.
A bilingual road sign (Turkish and Arabic) in Iraq
The Meskhetian Turkish dialect was originally spoken in Georgia
until the Turkish Meskhetian
community were forcefully deported and then dispersed throughout Turkey, Russia
, Central Asia
, and the United States
They speak an Eastern Anatolian
dialect of Turkish, which hails from the regions of Kars
, and Artvin
The Meskhetian Turkish dialect has also borrowed from other languages (including Azerbaijani
, and Uzbek
), which the Meskhetian Turks have been in contact with during the Russian
In general, "Turkish Islam" is considered to be "more moderate and pluralistic" than in other Middle Eastern-Islamic societies.
Historically, Turkish Sufi movements promoted liberal forms of Islam;
for example, Turkish humanist groups and thinkers, such as the Mevlevis
who follow Rumi
), the Bektashis, and Yunus Emre
emphasized faith over practicing Islam.
During this tolerant environment under the Seljuk Turks, more Turkish tribes arriving in Anatolia during the 13th century found the liberal Sufi version of Islam closer to their shamanists
traditions and chose to preserve some of their culture (such as dance and music).
During the late Ottoman period, the Tanzimat
policies introduced by the Ottoman intelligentsia fused Islam with modernization reforms; this was followed by Atatürk's secularist reforms
in the 20th century.
Consequently, there are also many non-practicing Turkish Muslims who tend to be politically secular
. For example, in Cyprus, the Turkish Cypriots
are generally very secular and only attend mosques on special occasions (such as for funerals).
Even so, the Hala Sultan Tekke
, which is the resting place of Umm Haram
, is considered to be one of the holiest sites in Islam and remains an important pilgrimage site for the secular Turkish Cypriot community too.
Similarly, in other urban areas of the Levant
, such as in Iraq
, the Turkish minority
are mainly secular, having internalized the secularist interpretation of state–religion affairs practiced in the Republic of Turkey
since its foundation in 1923.
In North Africa
, the Turkish minorities have traditionally differentiated themselves from the Arab-Berber population who follow the Maliki school
; this is because the Turks have continued to follow the teaching of the Hanafi school which was brought to the region by their ancestors during the Ottoman rule.
Indeed, the Ottoman-Turkish mosques in the region are often distinguishable by pencil-like and octagonal minarets which were built in accordance with the traditions of the Hanafi rite.
The tradition of building mosques in the Ottoman-style (i.e. either in the imperial style based on Istanbul
mosques or the provincial styles) has continued into the present day, both in traditional areas of settlement (e.g. in Turkey, the Balkans, Cyprus, and other parts of the Levant) as well as in Western Europe
and North America
where there are substantial immigrant communities.
Since the 1960s, "Turkish" was even seen as synonymous with "Muslim
" in countries like Germany because Islam was considered to have a specific "Turkish character" and visual architectural style.
Arts and Architecture
An example of Turkish classical music.
As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-based former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion, an increase in the modes of artistic expression followed. During the first years of the republic, the government invested a large amount of resources into fine arts; such as museums, theatres, opera houses and architecture. Diverse historical factors play important roles in defining the modern Turkish identity. Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a "modern" Western state, while maintaining traditional religious and historical values.
The mix of cultural influences is dramatized, for example, in the form of the "new symbols of the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the works of Orhan Pamuk
, recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature
Turkish genomic variation, along with several other Western Asian
populations, looks most similar to genomic variation of South European
populations such as southern Italians.
Data from ancient DNA – covering the Paleolithic
, the Neolithic
, and the Bronze Age
periods – showed that Western Asian genomes, including Turkish ones, have been greatly influenced by early agricultural populations in the area; later population movements, such as those of Turkic speakers, also contributed.
The only whole genome sequencing study of Turkish genetics (on 16 individuals) concluded that the Turkish population forms a cluster with Southern European/Mediterranean populations, and the predicted contribution from ancestral East Asian
populations (presumably Central Asian
) is 21.7%. Meanwhile, East Asian impact on Kazakh
genome (another Turkic ethnic group) is only %55 percent.
However, that is not a direct estimate of a migration rate, due to reasons such as unknown original contributing populations.
Moreover, the genetic variation of various populations in Central Asia "has been poorly characterized"; Western Asian populations may also be "closely related to populations in the east".
A study in 2015 found "7.9% (±0.4) East Asian ancestry in Turks", and the authors suggested that Turks are "genetically shifted towards modern Central Asians" in line with historical mixture of populations from this region.
A 2019 study found that Turkish people cluster with Southern and Mediterranean Europe populations along with groups in the northern part of Southwest Asia
(such as the populations from Caucasus
, Northern Iraq, and Iranians).
Another study found the Circassians
are closest to the Turkish population among sampled European (French, Italian, Sardinian), Middle Eastern (Druze, Palestinian), and Central (Kyrgyz, Hazara, Uygur), South (Pakistani), and East Asian (Mongolian, Han) populations.
Another 2019 study found that Turkish people have the lowest Fst distances
with Caucasus population group and Iranian-Syrian group, compared to East-Central European, European (including Northern and Eastern European), Sardinian, Roma, and Turkmen groups or populations. Caucasus group in the study included samples from "Abkhazians, Adygey, Armenians, Balkars, Chechens, Georgians, Kumyks, Kurds, Lezgins, Nogays, and North Ossetia."
A study involving mitochondrial analysis of a Byzantine-era
population, whose samples were gathered from excavations in the archaeological site of Sagalassos
, found that Sagalassos samples were closest to modern samples from "Turkey, Crimea, Iran and Italy (Campania and Puglia), Cyprus and the Balkans (Bulgaria, Croatia and Greece)."
Modern-day samples from the nearby town of Ağlasun showed that lineages of East Eurasian descent assigned to macro-haplogroup M were found in the modern samples from Ağlasun. This haplogroup is significantly more frequent in Ağlasun (15%) than in Byzantine Sagalassos, but the study concluded that there is "no genetic discontinuity across two millennia in the region."
Another study concluded that the true Central Asian contributions to Anatolia was 13% for males and 22% for females (with wide ranges of confidence intervals
), and the language replacement in Turkey and Azerbaijan might not have been in accordance with the elite dominance model.
"The history of Turkey encompasses, first, the history of Anatolia before the coming of the Turks and of the civilizations—Hittite, Thracian, Hellenistic, and Byzantine—of which the Turkish nation is the heir by assimilation or example. Second, it includes the history of the Turkish peoples, including the Seljuks, who brought Islam and the Turkish language to Anatolia. Third, it is the history of the Ottoman Empire, a vast, cosmopolitan, pan-Islamic state that developed from a small Turkish amirate in Anatolia and that for centuries was a world power."^ b: The Turks are also defined by the country of origin. Turkey, once Asia Minor or Anatolia, has a very long and complex history. It was one of the major regions of agricultural development in the early Neolithic and may have been the place of origin and spread of lndo-European languages at that time. The Turkish language was imposed on a predominantly lndo-European-speaking population (Greek being the official language of the Byzantine empire), and genetically there is very little difference between Turkey and the neighboring countries. The number of Turkish invaders was probably rather small and was genetically diluted by the large number of aborigines."
"The consideration of demographic quantities suggests that the present genetic picture of the aboriginal world is determined largely by the history of Paleolithic and Neolithic people, when the greatest relative changes in population numbers took place."
- ^ a b Garibova, Jala (2011), "A Pan-Turkic Dream: Language Unification of Turks", in Fishman, Joshua; Garcia, Ofelia (eds.), Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity: The Success-Failure Continuum in Language and Ethnic Identity Efforts, Oxford University Press, p. 268, ISBN 9780199837991, Approximately 200 million people,... speak nearly 40 Turkic languages and dialects. Turkey is the largest Turkic state, with about 60 million ethnic Turks living in its territories.
- ^ a b Hobbs, Joseph J. (2017), Fundamentals of World Regional Geography, Cengage, p. 223, ISBN 9781305854956, The greatest are the 65 million Turks of Turkey, who speak Turkish, a Turkic language...
- ^ "KKTC 2011 NÜFUS VE KONUT SAYIMI"(PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- ^ Orvis, Stephen; Drogus, Carol Ann (2018). Introducing Comparative Politics: Concepts and Cases in Context. CQ Press. p. 305. ISBN 978-1-5443-7444-4. Today, nearly three million ethnic Turks live in Germany, and many have raised children there.
- ^ a b Engstrom, Aineias, "Turkish-German "dream team" behind first COVID-19 vaccine", Portland State Vanguard, Portland State University, archived from the original on 27 March 2021, retrieved 27 March 2021, The German census does not gather data on ethnicity, however according to estimates, somewhere between 4–7 million people with Turkish roots, or 5–9% of the population, live in Germany.
- ^ Zestos, George K.; Cooke, Rachel N. (2020), Challenges for the EU as Germany Approaches Recession (PDF), Levy Economics Institute, p. 22, Presently (2020) more than seven million Turks live in Germany.
- ^ Szyszkowitz, Tessa (2005), "Germany", in Von Hippel, Karin (ed.), Europe Confronts Terrorism, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 53, ISBN 978-0230524590, It is a little late to start the debate about being an immigrant country now, when already seven million Turks live in Germany.
- ^ Aalberse, Suzanne; Backus, Ad; Muysken, Pieter (2019), Heritage Languages: A language Contact Approach, John Benjamins Publishing Company, p. 90, ISBN 978-9027261762, the Dutch Turkish community... out of a population that over the years must have numbered half a million.
- ^ Tocci, Nathalie (2004), EU Accession Dynamics and Conflict Resolution: Catalysing Peace Or Consolidating Partition in Cyprus?, Ashgate Publishing, p. 130, ISBN 9780754643104, The Dutch government was concerned about Turkey’s reaction to the European Council’s conclusions on Cyprus, keeping in mind the presence of two million Turks in Holland and the strong business links with Turkey.
- ^ van Veen, Rita (2007), ’De koningin heeft oog voor andere culturen’, Trouw, archived from the original on 12 April 2021, retrieved 25 December 2020, Erol kan niet voor alle twee miljoen Turken in Nederland spreken, maar hij denkt dat Beatrix wel goed ligt bij veel van zijn landgenoten.
- ^ Baker, Rauf (2021), The Netherlands: The EU’s “New Britain”?, Begin–Sadat Center for Strategic Studies, Bar-Ilan University, The Netherlands, which has a total population of 17 million, contains around two million Turks,...
- ^ Hentz, Jean-Gustave; Hasselmann, Michel (2010). Transculturalité, religion, traditions autour de la mort en réanimation. Springer-Verlag France. doi:10.1007/978-2-287-99072-4_33. ISBN 978-2-287-99072-4. La France d’aujourd’hui est une société multiculturelle et multiethnique riche de 4,9 millions de migrants représentant environ 8 % de la population du pays. L’immigration massive de populations du sud de l’Europe de culture catholique après la deuxième guerre mondiale a été suivie par l’arrivée de trois millions d’Africains du Nord, d’un million de Turcs et de contingents importants d’Afrique Noire et d’Asie qui ont implanté en France un islam majoritairement sunnite (Maghrébins et Africains de l’Ouest) mais aussi chiite (Pakistanais et Africains de l’Est).
- ^ Gallard, Joseph; Nguyen, Julien (2020), "Il est temps que la France appelle à de véritables sanctions contre le jeu d'Erdogan", Marianne, archived from the original on 14 February 2020, retrieved 25 November 2020, ... et ce grâce à la nombreuse diaspora turque, en particulier en France et en Allemagne. Ils seraient environ un million dans l'Hexagone, si ce n’est plus...es raisons derrière ne sont pas difficiles à deviner : l’immense population turque en Allemagne, estimée par Merkel elle-même aux alentours de sept millions et qui ne manquerait pas de se faire entendre si l’Allemagne prenait des mesures allant à l’encontre de la Turquie.
- ^ Contrat d'objectifs et de moyens (COM) 2020-2022 de France Médias Monde: Mme Joëlle Garriaud-Maylam, co-rapporteur, Sénat, 2021, retrieved 7 May 2021, Enfin, comme vous l'avez dit au sujet de la Turquie, il est essentiel que la France investisse davantage dans les langues qui sont parlées sur le territoire national. On recense plus d'un million de Turcs en France. Ils ne partagent pas toujours nos objectifs et nos valeurs, parce qu'ils subissent l'influence d'une presse qui ne nous est pas toujours très favorable. Il est donc très utile de les prendre en compte dans le développement de nos médias.
- ^ a b "Remarks by Commerce Secretary Bryson, April 5, 2012", Foreign Policy Bulletin, Cambridge University Press, 22 (3): 137, 2012, Here in the U.S., you can see our person-to-person relationships growing stronger each day. You can see it in the 13,000 Turkish students that are studying here in the U.S. You can see it in corporate leaders like Muhtar Kent, the CEO of Coca-Cola, and you can see it in more than one million Turkish-Americans who add to the rich culture and fabric of our country.
- ^ Remarks at Center for American Progress & Confederation of Businessmen and Industrialists of Turkey (TUSKON) Luncheon, U.S. Department of Commerce, 2012, retrieved 13 November 2020
- ^ "UK immigration analysis needed on Turkish legal migration, say MPs". The Guardian. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
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- ^ Warum die Türken? (PDF), 78, Initiative Minderheiten, 2011, Was sind die Gründe für dieses massive Unbehagen angesichts von rund 360.000 Menschen türkischer Herkunft?
- ^ Mölzer, Andreas. "In Österreich leben geschätzte 500.000 Türken, aber kaum mehr als 10–12.000 Slowenen". Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
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- ^ Debels, Thierry (2021), Operatie Rebel: toen de Belgische heroïnehandel in Turkse handen was, PMagazine, archived from the original on 16 August 2021, retrieved 16 August 2021, Volgens diverse bronnen zouden eerst een half miljoen Turken die toen in Belgie verbleven – Belgen van Turkse afkomst en aanverwanten – gescreend zijn.
- ^ a b Lennie, Soraya (2017). "Turkish diaspora in Australia vote in referendum". TRT World. p. 28. Retrieved 14 November 2020. An estimated 200,000 Turks live in Australia with most of them based in Melbourne's northern suburbs.
- ^ a b c d Vahdettin, Levent; Aksoy, Seçil; Öz, Ulaş; Orhan, Kaan (2016), Three-dimensional cephalometric norms of Turkish Cypriots using CBCT images reconstructed from a volumetric rendering program in vivo, Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey, Recent estimates suggest that there are now 500,000 Turkish Cypriots living in Turkey, 300,000 in the United Kingdom, 120,000 in Australia, 5000 in the United States, 2000 in Germany, 1800 in Canada, and 1600 in New Zealand with a smaller community in South Africa.
- ^ a b c d e Karcı, Durmuş (2018), "The Effects of Language Characters and Identity of Meskhetian Turkish in Kazakhstan", The Journal of Kesit Academy, 4 (13): 301–303
- ^ a b Sayıner, Arda (2018). "Swedish touch in Turkey". Daily Sabah. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
- ^ a b Laczko, Frank; Stacher, Irene; Klekowski von Koppenfels, Amanda (2002), New challenges for Migration Policy in Central and Eastern Europe, Cambridge University Press, p. 187, ISBN 978-90-6704-153-9
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- ^ Schweizer Nein könnte Europa-Skeptiker stärken, Der Tagesspiegel, 2009, retrieved 26 May 2021, Dabei erwarten Vertreter der rund 120.000 Türken in der Schweiz nach dem Referendum keine gravierenden Änderungen in ihrem Alltag.
- ^ a b Aytaç, Seyit Ahmet (2018), Shared issues, stronger ties: Canada's envoy to Turkey, Anadolu Agency, retrieved 7 February 2021, Turkish diaspora of some 100,000 Turks largely in Toronto is growing, says Canadian Ambassador Chris Cooter ... We have a growing Turkish diaspora and they’re doing very well in Canada. We think it’s 100,000, largely in Toronto. We have several thousand Turkish students in Canada as well.
- ^ Larsen, Nick Aagaard (2008), Tyrkisk afstand fra Islamisk Trossamfund, Danish Broadcasting Corporation, retrieved 1 November 2020, Ud af cirka 200.000 muslimer i Danmark har 70.000 tyrkiske rødder, og de udgør dermed langt den største muslimske indvandrergruppe.
- ^ Türk kadınının derdi Danimarka’da da aynı, Milliyet, 2015, retrieved 7 September 2021, Danimarka’da yaşayan 75 bin Türk nüfusunda,...
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- ^ Bir masal ülkesinde yaşam öğretisi., Milliyet, 2009, retrieved 6 September 2021, Bu küçücük ülkede yaşayan 1000 Türk'ten...
- ^ a b Taef, El-Azhari (2005). "The Turkmen Identity Crisis in the fifteenth-century Middle East: The Turkmen-Turkish Struggle for Supremacy"(PDF). Chronica. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 June 2018. Retrieved 9 June 2018. The Turkmen were always the forgotten minority in the area despite their large population. In the absence of official records, their numbers cannot be calculated, but it is widely accepted that they exceed three millions in Iraq, and one million in Syria and other countries.
- ^ a b Triana, María (2017), Managing Diversity in Organizations: A Global Perspective, Taylor & Francis, p. 168, ISBN 978-1-317-42368-3, Turkmen, Iraqi citizens of Turkish origin, are the third largest ethnic group in Iraq after Arabs and Kurds and they are said to number about 3 million of Iraq's 34.7 million citizens according to the Iraqi Ministry of Planning.
- ^ Bassem, Wassim (2016). "Iraq's Turkmens call for independent province". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 17 October 2016. Turkmens are a mix of Sunnis and Shiites and are the third-largest ethnicity in Iraq after Arabs and Kurds, numbering about 3 million out of the total population of about 34.7 million, according to 2013 data from the Iraqi Ministry of Planning.
- ^ Aikman, David (2014), The Mirage of Peace: Understand The Never-Ending Conflict in the Middle East, Baker Publishing Group, ISBN 9781441223555, There is also about 1.7 million Turks in Syria, and about 800,000 Druze,...
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- ^ Gamal, Gamal, Did the Turks sweeten Egypt's kitty?, Al-Ahram Weekly, retrieved 1 May 2018, Today, the number of ethnic Turks in Egypt varies considerably, with estimates ranging from 100,000 to 1,500,000. Most have intermingled in Egyptian society and are almost indistinguishable from non-Turkish Egyptians, even though a considerable number of Egyptians of Turkish origin are bilingual.
- ^ a b Al-Akhbar. "Lebanese Turks Seek Political and Social Recognition". Al Akhbar. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2012. Erdogan’s envoys were surprised to find out that Turks who immigrated 100 years ago today number nearly 80,000.
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- ^ Yemen Raporu, Union of NGOs of The Islamic World, 2014, p. 26, Bu noktadan hareketle, bölgede yaklaşık 10 bin ila 100 bin arasında Türk asıllı vatandaş bulunduğu tahmin edilmektedir.
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- ^ National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria (2011). "2011 Population Census in the Republic of Bulgaria (Final data)" (PDF). National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria.
- ^ a b Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu; Baylar, Ayben; Keleş, Seray Çağla; Dimitrova, Radosveta (2018), "Positive Affect and School Related Outcomes: Feeling Good Facilitates School Engagement Among Turkish-Bulgarian Minority Adolescents", in Dimitrova, Radosveta (ed.), Well-Being of Youth and Emerging Adults across Cultures: Novel Approaches and Findings from Europe, Asia, Africa and America, Springer, p. 149, ISBN 9783319683638, Turks in Bulgaria represent the largest ethnic minority group in the country, constituting almost 10% of Bulgaria's seven million total population,...
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- ^ National Institute of Statistics (2011), Comunicat de presă privind rezultatele provizorii ale Recensământului Populaţiei şi Locuinţelor – 2011 (PDF), Romania-National Institute of Statistics, p. 10
- ^ Phinnemore, David (2006), The EU and Romania: accession and beyond, The Federal Trust for Education & Research, p. 157, ISBN 978-1-903403-78-5, Today, there are around 55,000 Turks living in Romania and they are represented as a minority in parliament.
- ^ Constantin, Daniela L.; Goschin, Zizi; Dragusin, Mariana (2008), "Ethnic entrepreneurship as an integration factor in civil society and a gate to religious tolerance. A spotlight on Turkish entrepreneurs in Romania", Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies, 7 (20): 59, The significant Turkish population living in Romania (nearly 80,000 members, including immigrants)...
- ^ 2011 census in the Republic of Kosovo.[full citation needed]
- ^ a b OSCE (2010), "Community Profile: Kosovo Turks", Kosovo Communities Profile, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, p. 3, Approximately 30,000 Kosovo Turks live in Kosovo today, while up to 250,000 people from different Kosovo communities speak or at least understand the Turkish language...The Turkish language has been granted official language status in the municipalities of Prizren and Vushtrri/ Vučitrn.
- ^ Kibaroğlu, Mustafa; Kibaroğlu, Ayșegül (2009), Global Security Watch—Turkey: A Reference Handbook, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 107, ISBN 9780313345609, Turks themselves are also an important ethnic minority in the region... In Kosovo, their number is estimated to be around 60,000...
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- ^ Barthold (1962)""The book of my grandfather Korkut" ("Kitab-i dedem Korkut") is an outstanding monument of the medieval Oghuz heroic epic. Three modern Turkic-speaking peoples - Turkmens, Azerbaijanis and Turks - are ethnically and linguistically related to the medieval Oghuzes. For all these peoples, the epic legends deposited in the "Book of Korkut" represent an artistic reflection of their historical past."
- ^ a b c d e f Mayer, Ann Elizabeth (2010), "Turks", The Contemporary Middle East: A Westview Reader, Westview Press, p. 27, ISBN 9780813344652, Generally, they speak Turkish as a primary language, are Muslims (90% are Sunni), claim a Turkish heritage... Four groups of Turks can be identified through cultural and geographic differences. First, the Anatolian Turks in Asia Minor...Second, the Rumelian Turks (from Rum, meaning "Roman", or European) are European Turks who remained in Europe after the Ottoman days... Third are descendants of Turks who stayed in various parts of the Middle East separated from the Ottoman Empire after World War I. Fourth are some 200,000 Turkish Cypriots...
- ^ Freeman, Michael; Ellena, Katherine; Kator-Mubarez, Amina (2021), The Global Spread of Islamism and the Consequences for Terrorism, University of Nebraska Press, p. 83, ISBN 9781640124165, there are now around 300,000 Turkish Cypriots in the United Kingdom.
- ^ Scott-Geddes, Arthur (2019), London's Turkish restaurants take a hit in uncertain times, The National, retrieved 10 January 2021, Almost 90 per cent of the UK’s Turkish population lives in London, including as many as 400,000 Turkish Cypriots concentrated in areas of north and north-east London including Hackney, Enfield and Haringey.
- ^ Home Affairs Committee (1 August 2011). "Implications for the Justice and Home Affairs area of the accession of Turkey to the European Union" (PDF). The Stationery Office. p. Ev 34. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- ^ International Organization for Migration (2007). "Iraq: Mapping exercise" (PDF). London: International Organization for Migration. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 3 July 2010.
- ^ Avrupa'da Batı Trakya Batı Trakya Türkleri Gerçeği ve Avrupa Batı Trakya Türk Federasyonu, Avrupa Batı Trakya Türk Federasyonu, archived from the original on 20 July 2021, retrieved 8 May 2021, Avustralya ve Amerika Birleşik Devletleri, Kanada gibi uzak ülkelerin dışında aralarında Hollanda, İngiltere, İsveç, Fransa, Belçika ve Avusturya gibi ülkelerde de sayısı yadsınamayacak bir Batı Trakyalı Türk kitlesi yaşamaktadır.
- ^ a b Maeva, Mila (2008), "Modern Migration Waves of Bulgarian Turks", in Marushiakova, Elena (ed.), Dynamics of National Identity and Transnational Identities in the Process of European Integration, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 227–229, ISBN 9781847184719
- ^ a b c Inglis, K. S. (2008), Sacred Places: War Memorials in the Australian Landscape, The Miegunyah Press, p. 108, ISBN 978-0-522-85479-4
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- ^ Helton, Arthur C. (1998). "Chapter Two: Contemporary Conditions and Dilemmas". Meskhetian Turks: Solutions and Human Security. Open Society Institute. Archived from the original on 15 April 2007. Retrieved 17 January 2012. An estimated 20,000 to 25,000 Meskhetian Turks settled in Azerbaijan between 1958 and 1962. The inflow continued over the years, although pinpointing precise numbers is difficult because many were officially registered as Azerbaijani. Vatan leaders in Azerbaijan asserted that close to 40,000 Meskhetian Turks were living in the republic in 1989, the time of the last Soviet census. Those numbers were then augmented by the more than 45,000 who arrived in Azerbaijan to escape the Uzbekistan troubles. Up to 5,000 more have come to Azerbaijan from Russia during the 1990s, according to some estimates.
- ^ UNHCR (1999), Background Paper on Refugees and Asylum Seekers from Azerbaijan(PDF), United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, p. 14
- ^ Khazanov, Anatoly Michailovich (1995), After the USSR: Ethnicity, Nationalism and Politics in the Commonwealth of Independent States, University of Wisconsin Press, p. 202, ISBN 978-0-299-14894-2, Because of the high birthrates their number is constantly increasing and, according to sources, has already reached 400,000... It is true that the last Soviet census of 1989 gives a lower figure - 207,369; however, one should take into account that far from all Meskhetian Turks have been registered as such. For years many were even denied the right to register their nationality in legal documents. Thus, by 1988 in Kazakhstan, only one third of them were recorded as Turks on their passports. The rest had been arbitrarily declared members of other ethnic groups.
- ^ a b Aydıngün et al. 2006: This figure, however, does not reflect the real population of Meskhetian Turks, because Soviet authorities recorded many of them as belonging to other nationalities such as Azeri, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Uzbek."
- ^ a b c d e Khalifa, Mustafa (2013), The impossible partition of Syria, Arab Reform Initiative, pp. 3–5, archived from the original on 27 March 2019, retrieved 27 March 2019, Turkmen are the third largest ethnic group in Syria, making up around 4–5% of the population. Some estimations indicate that they are the second biggest group, outnumbering Kurds, drawing on the fact that Turkmen are divided into two groups: the rural Turkmen who make up 30% of the Turkmen in Syria and who have kept their mother tongue, and the urban Turkmen who have become Arabized and no longer speak their mother language.
- ^ Piccinin, Pierre (2011), Après avoir été sur le terrain, La Libre Belgique, Les Turcomans pratiquant exclusivement leur dialecte turc sont 1 500 000. L'ensemble des Turcomans de Syrie (y compris ceux qui ont adopté l'arabe comme langue usuelle), sont estimés entre 3,5 et 6 millions, soit de 15 à 20 % de la population. C'est le troisième groupe de population en importance.
- ^ Ahmida, Ali Abdullatif (2011), The Making of Modern Libya: State Formation, Colonization, and Resistance, Second Edition, State University of New York, p. 44, ISBN 9781438428932, The majority of the population came from Turkish, Arab Berber, or black backgrounds, in addition to the religious minorities... Some inhabitants, like the Cologhli, were descendants of the old Turkish ruling class...
- ^ a b c d e f g Nyrop, Richard F.; Benderly, Beryl Lieff; Cover, Willian W.; Cutter, Melissa J.; Evin, Ahmet Ö.; Parker, Newton B.; Teleki, Suzanne (1973), Area Handbook for the Republic of Turkey, 550, United States Government Publishing Office, ISSN 0892-8541, Among the Turks may be distinguished a number of regional variants that do not function as ethnic groups but merely reflect differing historical and ecological circumstances. To some extent, differences of accent, customs, and outlook distinguish the regions and are popularly expressed in regional stereotypes. Three of the most important of these variants are Anatolian Turks, the peasantry of central core of Asiatic Turkey, whose culture is said to underlie Turkish nationalism; Rumelian Turks, primarily immigrants from Balkan territories of the empire of their descendants; and central Asian Turks, the assorted Turkic tibesmen from Asia who have come to Turkey. Others, such as the Black Sea Turks, whose speech largely lacks the vowel harmony valued elsewhere and whose natural predilections are thought to be toward extremely devout religion and the sea, are also distinguished.
- ^ Şimşir, Bilal (1989), "The Turks of Bulgaria, 1878–1985", Turkish Quarterly Review Digest, Directorate General of Press and Information, 3 (15): 6, The Balkan Turks and the Anatolian Turks together constituted the core of the Ottoman Empire and its founding element.
- ^ Çıraklı, Mustafa (2018), "Turkish Migration into the North of Cyprus and the (Re)Construction of Turkish Cypriot Identity in the Turkish Cypriot Press (1995–2013)", in Kyritsi, Thekla; Christofis, Nikos (eds.), Cypriot Nationalisms in Context: History, Identity and Politics, Springer, p. 200, ISBN 9783319978048
- ^ Cornell, Svante E. (2005), Small Nations and Great Powers: A Study of Ethnopolitical Conflict in the Caucasus, Routledge, p. 171, ISBN 9781135796693, Many Georgians have advocated that the Meskhetian Turks should be sent to Turkey, 'where they belong'. The Turkish authorities have, nevertheless, been reluctant to accept them, probably as they are afraid of experiencing a massive migration of ethnic Turks from different parts of the Balkans, the Middle East and the CIS. Other examples are that Turks in Western Thrace and Bulgaria, as well as Turkish Cypriots, face difficulties in obtaining Turkish citizenship. Rather, Turkey wants these minority groups, perhaps for strategic reasons, to remain in or return to their ancestral lands.
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- ^ "Austria", Annual Report on International Religious Freedom 2007, February 2008, 110–2 Report, United States Government Publishing Office, 2008, p. 253, By far the largest ethnic group is Turkish, of which 123,000 have Turkish citizenship, Many more ethnic Turks are Austrian citizens.
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- ^ Lee & Kuang 2017, p. 197. "Both Chinese histories and modern dna studies indicate that the early and medieval Turkic peoples were made up of heterogeneous populations. The Turkicisation of central and western Eurasia was not the product of migrations involving a homogeneous entity, but that of language diffusion."
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