The Origins of the Islamic State/Part 9/Chapter 11
CHAPTER XI MADINAT AS-SALAM
Built by al-Mansur. Baghdadh * was an ancient city, but al-Mansur colonized it, and added a city to it 2 which 295 he began in the year 145. Hearing that Muhammad and Ibrahim, the sons of 'Abdallah ibn-Hasan ibn-Hasan, had thrown off their allegiance to him, al-Mansur returned to al-Kufah. In the year 146, he transferred the public treasures [buyut al-mdl], repositories, and registers from al-Kufah to Baghdadh, and called it Madinat as-Salam [the city of peace]. In the year 147, the wall of this city, with everything else connected with it, and the wall of ancient Baghdadh were completed. Al-Mansur died in Makkah in the year 158 and was buried near the well of Maimun ibn-al-Hadrami, an ally of the banu-Umaiyah.
Ar-Rusdfah. Ar-Rusaf ah 3 was built for al-Mahdi by al-Mansur on the east side of Baghdadh. This side was called 'Askar [camp] al-Mahdi 4 because al-Mahdi camped in it on his way to ar-Rai. When he returned from ar-Rai, he settled in ar-Rusafah, although it had occurred to al- Mansur to direct him to settle in Khurasan. This took place in the year 151. Before al-Mahdi had occupied the
1 A Persian word meaning the city " founded by God," see Le Strange, Baghdad, pp. 10-11. 8 Qaukal, p. 164.
3 i. e., causeway, the eastern suburb of Baghdad. Istakhri, pp. 83, 84; Tanbih, p. 360.
4 Ya'kubi, Bulddn, p. 251.
east side, a palace was built for him by al-Mansur s order; the one variously known as Kasr al-Waddah, Kasr al- Mahdi and ash-Sharkiyah. 1 It lay on the other side of Bab al-Karkh. Al-Waddah, after whom it is sometimes called, was a man from al-Anbar who had charge of the expenses.
Al-Mansur as a builder. Al-Mansur built the two mos- ques of Madinat as-Salam and the new bridge over as- Sarat [canal]. The site of the city he bought from the owners of the villages of Baduraiya, Katrabbul [or Kut- rubbul], Nahr Buk and Nahr Bin. He gave the city as fief to members of his household, his generals, soldiers, companions and secretaries. He made the meeting place of the streets at al-Karkh, and ordered the merchants to build their shops and held them responsible for the rent. 2
Places of interest in Baghdad? The al-Mukharrim quar- ter 4 in Baghdadh takes its name from Mukharrim ibn-Shu- raih 5 ibn-Hazn al-Harithi.
The Kantarat al-Baradan quarter, from as-Sari ibn-al- Hutaim, 8 the builder of al-Hutamiyah.
As-Salihiyah, from Salih ibn-al-Mansur.
Al-Harbiyah, from Harb ibn-'Abdaliah al-Balkhi, T the commander of the guard in al-Mausil under Ja'far ibn-abi- Ja'far.
Az-Zuhairiyah or Bab at-Tibn, from Zuhair ibn-Muham- mad of the inhabitants of Abiward.
1 1. e., " the oriental palace ". Ya'kubi, p. 245.
a Ar. ghallah = rent paid for buildings standing on the property of the state.
' The following list is an abridged form of the original. 4 Le Strange, pp. 217-230.
Duraid, p. 238, omits " ibn-Shuraih ".
Marasid, vol. ii, p. 453 : " as-.Surai ibn-al-IJutam ". 1 Cf. Mahasin, vol. i, p. 307.
MADINAT AS-SALAM 459
'Isabadh, from 'Isa ibn-al-Mahdi. 1
Kasr 'Abdawaih standing opposite Baratha, from 'Abda- waih, a notable of the Azd.
Al-Mansur assigned as fief to Sulaiman ibn-Mujalid the site of his home; to Muhalhil ibn-Safwan, after whom Darb Muhalhil is named, a special fief; to 'Umarah ibn-Hamzah, the quarter that bears his name; to Maimun abu-Bishr after whom Takat Bishr are named, a special fief near Bustan al- Kass; 2 to Shubail, his f reedman, a fief near Dar Yaktin; to umm-'Ubaidah, a freedmaid of Muhammad ibn-'Ali, a fief; to Munirah, a freedmaid of Muhammad ibn-'Ali and after whom Darb Munirah and Khan [inn] Munirah are named, a special fief; and to Raisanah 3 a spot known by the name of Mas j id bani-Raghban. 4
Darb [path] Mihrawaih takes its name from Mihra- 297 waih ar-Razi who was one of the captives of Sinfadh and was set free by al-Mahdi.
The city a residence for the caliphs. Al-Mansur lived in Madinat as-Salam to the last days of his caliphate. He made a pilgrimage from it and died in Makkah. The city was then occupied by the caliph al-Mahdi. Later, al-Mahdi left for Masabadhan, where he died. Most of the time he spent in Madinat as-Salam was passed in palaces he built at 'Isabadh.
Madinat as-Salam was then occupied by al-Hadi Musa ibn-al-Mahdi, who died in it. Ar-Rashid Harun also re- sided in it, and later left it for ar-Rafikah where he stayed for a while and then departed for Khurasan, and died at Tus. The city became after that the residence of Muham- mad ibn-ar-Rashid, who was slain in it.
1 Tanbih, pp. 343-344-
1 Ya'kubi, p. 247.
1 Marasid, vol. ii, p. 433.
4 Dhahabi, p. 227; Ya'kubi, pp. 244-245.
Al-Ma'mun 'Abdallah ibn-ar-Rashid came to the city from Khurasan and took up his abode in it. He then left on an expedition during which he died at al-Fadhandun and was buried at Tarsus.
Surra-man-ra'a, a residence for the caliphs. Caliph al- Mu'tasim-Billah made his residence in it and then left it for al-Katul l where he occupied the Kasr ar-Rashid which was built when ar-Rashid dug out Katulah [canal] and called it abu-1-Jund [the father of the army] because the land watered by it produced enough provisions for the army. Al-Mu'tasim erected in al-Katul a building which he occu- pied, and offered the Kasr to Ashnas at-Turki [the Turk], his freedman. He started to colonize that region and after beginning a new city, he gave it up and built the city of Surra-man-ra'a. 2 He transplanted people to it and made it his residence. At the meeting point of the streets, he built a cathedral mosque, and called the city Surra-man-ra'a. Al- Mu'tasim made his freedman, Ashnas, together with the other generals who had joined him [Ashnas], settle at Karkh Fairuz. Other generals were given the houses called al-'Arabaya. 3 Al-Mu'tasim died in Surra-man-ra'a in the year 227.
Harun al-Wathik-Billah lived to the last day of his life in a house which he built at Surra-man-ra'a and called al-Ha- runi.
When in dhu-1-Hijjah, year 232, the caliph Ja'far al-Mu- tawakkil-'Alallah was installed, he made al-Haruni his resi- dence. He erected many buildings and assigned to different men fiefs in a place back of Surra-man-ra'a called al-
1 Tanbih, pp. 356-357.
2 Ya'kubi, pp. 256-257; Yakut, vol. iii, p. 14; Tabari, vol. iii, pp. 1179-1180.
1 Marasid, vol. v, p. 501, n.; Mushtarik, p. 183.
MAD1NAT AS-SALAM 4 6i
Ha'ir 1 in which al-Mu'tasim had put him in confinement, thus giving more space for the inhabitants. Al-Mutawak- kil also built a great cathedral mosque and lavished enor- mous sums of money on it, making the minaret so high that the voices of the muezzins could be easily heard, and the minaret could be seen at a distance of many parasangs. The Moslems gave up the first mosque and held Friday prayers in it.
Al-Mutawakkiliyah. Al-Mutawakkil founded a city which he called al-Mutawakkiliyah. He built it between al- Karkh, known by the name of Fairuz, and al-Katul, known by the name of Kisra, chose it for his abode and gave fiefs in it. The houses and the villages known as al-Mahuzah 2 were included in it. Al-Mutawakkil built in this city a cathedral mosque. From the time he started the city to the time he occupied it, only a few months elapsed, the occupa- tion having taken place at the beginning of the year 246. Here he died in Shauwal,  47.
In the same night on which he died, al-Muntasir-Billah was proclaimed caliph; and on Tuesday the loth of Shau- wal, he left al-Mutawakkiliyah for Surra-man-ra'a, where he died.
f Uyiin at-Taff. 'Uyun [springs] at-Taff 3 which include 'Ain as- Said, al-Kutkutanah, ar-Ruhaimah, 'Ain Jamal and the lands that belonged to them, were held by the garri- sons that guarded the frontier forts beyond as-Sawad. These springs lay near Khandak [trench] Sabur, which Sabur had dug between him and the Arabs who guarded the frontier and the other Arabs who lived there. Sabur allowed them the use of the land as fief without collecting khardj from them.
1 Tabari, vol. Hi, p. 752, and Ya'kubi, p. 258 : " al-IJair ". Cf. Yakut, vol. ii, p. 189.
2 Athir, vol. vii, pp. 56, 68 : " al-Makhurah ".
3 Yakut, vol. iii, p. 539; Hamadhani, p. 187.
In the battle of dhu-Kar in which Allah through his Prophet gave the Arabs the victory, the Arabs gained pos- session of some of these springs, the rest remaining in the hands of the Persians. When the Arabs advanced to al- Hirah, the Persians took to flight after covering over with earth all the springs in their lands. The Arabs who held the remaining springs embraced Islam; and the land which they cultivated became tithe-land.
After the battles of al-Kadisiyah and al Mada'in, the lands whose owners had evacuated them, were turned over to the Moslems and given out as fiefs, thus becoming tithe- lands. Such was the case with 'Uyun at-Taff whose lands are treated like the villages in the valley of al-Madinah and the villages of Najd, all the sadakah thereof being given to the 'dmils of al-Madinah.
When Ishak ibn-Ibrahim ibn-Mus'ab ruled over as-Sa- wad in the name of al-Mutawakkil, he added these 'Uyun and their lands to what he already controlled; and he col- lected their tithe, treating them as any other land in as-Sa- wad, which status they still retain. The Moslems later dug out many other springs which irrigate lands that are treated in a similar way.
'Ain al-Jamal I was told by a sheikh that 'Ain al- Jamal l was so called because a camel [Ar. jamal] died near it. Others say that the one who dug it out was called Jamal.
'Ain as-Said. ' Ain as-Said 2 [fishing spring] was so called because fish gathered in it. I was told by certain Kuraiziyun [?] that this spring was one of those covered with earth. As one of the Moslems was passing there, the legs of his horse sank in the mud. He dismounted and dug in the ground; and the water appeared. With the help of
1 Rustah, p. 180: '"Ain Jamal".
Ibid., p. 180 : " 'Ain Said "; cf. Khurdadhbih, p. 146.
MAD! NAT AS-SALAM 463
certain men he called, the earth and soil were removed, the course was opened and the water issued as before. The spring then passed to the hands of 'Isa ibn-'Ali, who bought it from a son of Hasan ibn-Hasan ibn-'Ali ibn-abi-Talib. One of 'Isa's wives was umm-Kalthum, daughter of Hasan ibn-Hasan. Mu'awiyah in exchange for the caliphate, as- signed, together with other things, 'Ain as-Said as fief to al-Hasan ibn-'Ali.
'Ain ar-Rahbah. 'Ain ar-Rahbah was also one of the springs buried of old. A pilgrim from Karman once saw it leaking; and when he returned from his pilgrimage, he advised 'Isa ibn-Musa regarding it and pointed it out to him. This Karman man took it as fief with its land and dug it out. He cultivated the lands around it and planted the palm-trees which stand on al-'Udhaib road.
( Uyun al-'Irk. A few parasangs from Hit lie certain springs called al-'Irk which are similar to 'Uyun at-Taff, and whose tithes are taken by the chief of Hit.
The meaning of Sawdd. Al-Athram from abu-'Amr ibn- al-'Ala' : When the Arabs saw the great number of vil- lages, palm and other trees, they exclaimed, "Never did we see a greater number of sawddl" i. e. } objects. Hence the name of the country as-Sawad.
The market compared to the place of worship. Al- Kasim ibn-Sallam from Muhammad ibn-abi-Musa : One day 'Ali went out to the market and saw that his relatives 300 had secured special places, upon which he remarked, " That can not be. For the Moslems, the market is similar to the place of worship : he who arrives first can hold his seat all day until he leaves it."
Abu-'Ubaid from 'Abd-ar-Rahman ibn-'Ubaid's father: The latter said, "In the time of al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah, we used to go early into the market; and when one sat in a place, he had claim on it until the nightfall. But when
Ziyad came, he ordered that he who sat in a place, could claim it so long as he occupied it."
According to Marwan, al-Mughirah held the governor- ship of al-Kufah twice: once for 'Umar and another time for Mu'awiyah.
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