Perma.cc is a service that helps anyone who needs to cite to the web create links to their references that will never break. Perma.cc prevents link rot.
When a user creates a Perma.cc link, Perma.cc archives the referenced content and generates a link to an archived record of the page. Regardless of what may happen to the original source, the archived record will always be available through the Perma.cc link. To learn more about how Perma.cc works, please take a look at our user guide
Perma.cc is developed and maintained by the Harvard Law School Library in conjunction with university law libraries across the country and other organizations in the “forever” business.
In a sample of several legal journals
, approximately 70% of all links in citations published between 1999 and 2011 no longer point to the same material. Broken links in journal articles undermine the citation-based system of legal scholarship by obscuring the evidence underlying authors’ ideas.
As Internet usage becomes more widespread and web citations in scholarship become more common, the problem of link rot will become increasingly important.
Using Perma.cc ensures that material cited by authors will always be accessible to readers, preserving the foundation of scholarship and reference online.
Users go to the Perma.cc website and input a URL. Perma.cc downloads the material at that URL and gives back a new URL (a “Perma.cc link”) that can then be inserted in a paper, article, blog or whatever the author needs.
Readers who encounter Perma.cc links can click on them like ordinary URLs. This takes them to the Perma.cc site where they are presented with a page that has links both to the original web source (along with some information, including the date of the Perma.cc link’s creation) and to the archived version stored by Perma.cc.
Perma.cc relies on a distributed set of journals and libraries for administration. Journals work with authors to create archives and libraries provide guidance and oversight to journals.
Academic institutions and courts can become registrars of Perma.cc for free, and can provide accounts to their users for free as well.
Organizations (such as law firms, publishers, non-profits and others) or individuals not associated with an academic institution or court are both able to use Perma via paid subscription:
- Organizations can administer unlimited Perma accounts for their users for a monthly flat group rate. These registrar accounts also include collaboration tools and administrative controls.
- Individuals can access Perma via tiered subscriptions that fit their particular needs.
Subscription status does not affect the preservation, access, or visibility of already-made links, just the amount of Perma Links a user can create in a given month.
Perma.cc was built by Harvard’s Library Innovation Lab and is backed by the power of libraries. We’re both in the forever business: libraries already look after physical and digital materials — now we can do the same for links.
If you’re a librarian or are affiliated with a library, we can make using Perma.cc free and simple for you and the scholars that depend on you. We’ve answered many common questions and prepared a special library signup at the link below.
Perma.cc is used and supported by libraries and institutions around the world.
Albany Law SchoolAlex A. Hanna Law Library, St. Thomas University School of LawAlexander Campbell King Law Library, University of Georgia School of LawAmerican University Washington College of Law LibraryAndover-Harvard Theological LibraryArthur J. Morris Law Library, University of Virginia School of LawAve Maria Law LibraryBelmont University College of LawBerkeley Law LibraryBerkman Center for Internet and SocietyBiblioteca della Scuola Normale SuperioreBiddle Law Library, University of PennsylvaniaBodleian Law Library, Bodleian Libraries, University of OxfordBoston Latin Academy LibraryBrooklyn Law School LibraryC4ADSCUNY School of Law LibraryCalifornia Western School of Law LibraryCampbell School of Law LibraryCapital University Law School LibraryCardozo School of LawCharles B. Sears Law LibraryCharleston School of Law LibraryCharlotte School of Law LibraryClaremont School of Theology Library, Claremont School of TheologyCleveland-Marshall College of Law LibraryCollege of Law Library, University of La VerneColorado LawColumbia Law SchoolCornell University Law SchoolCreighton University School of LawDaniel F. Cracchiolo Law Library at the University of ArizonaDavid C. Shapiro Memorial Law Library at Northern Illinois University College of LawDigital Public Library of AmericaDorraine Zief Law Library - at the University of San Francisco School of LawDuke Law SchoolD’Angelo Law LibraryFletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts UniversityFlorida State Law Research CenterFred Parks Law Library, South Texas College of LawFurman Smith Law LibraryGarbrecht Law LibraryGeorge R. Farmer Jr. Law LibraryGeorge W. Hopper Law LibraryGeorgetown Law Library, Georgetown LawGolden Gate University Law LibraryGrisham Law Library, University of Mississippi School of LawHamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW Hamburg)Hamline University Library and ArchivesHarvard Law School LibraryHugh & Hazel Darling Law Library, UCLA School of LawIIT Chicago-Kent Law Library, IIT Chicago-Kent College of LawJacob Burns Law Library, The George Washington University Law SchoolJames E. Faust Law Library, University of UtahJohn F. Schaefer Law Library, Michigan State University College of LawJohn Joseph Moakley Law Library, Suffolk University Law SchoolKathrine R. Everett Law Library, University of North CarolinaKresge Law Library, University of Notre Dame The Law SchoolLaw Library at Boston College, Boston College of LawLaw Library, Fowler School of Law at Chapman UniversityLaw Library, Indiana University Maurer School of LawLouis L. Biro Law Library, The John Marshall Law SchoolLouisiana State University Law Library, LSU Law CenterLoyola Law School, Los AngelesLoyola University Chicago School of LawLoyola University Libraries Lucy Scribner Library, Skidmore CollegeMabie Law Library, Santa Clara UniversityMarx Science and Social Science LibraryMelbourne Law School Library, The University of MelbourneMichael E. Moritz Law Library, Ohio State UniversityMichigan Reporter of Decisions, Michigan Supreme CourtNahum Gelber Law Library, McGill UniversityNew York University Law LibraryOklahoma City University School of LawOntario Medical AssociationOsgoode Hall Law School Library, York UniversityPace Law School, Pace UniversityPappas Law Library, Boston University School of LawPardee Legal Research Center, University of San DiegoPaul L. Boley Law Library, Lewis & Clark Law SchoolPitt Law LibraryPrinceton University Library, Princeton UniversityPritzker Legal Research Center, Northwestern LawRay & Kay Eckstein Law Library, Marquette UniversityRobert Crown Law Library, Stanford Law SchoolRoger Williams University Law LibraryRoss-Blakely Law Library, Sandra Day O'Connor College of Law at Arizona State UniversityRutgers Law School LibraryRuth Lilly Law Library, Robert H. McKinney School of Law, Indiana UniversitySMU Dedman School of LawSeattle University School of LawSouthwestern Law School LibrarySt. Mary’s University School of LawTarlton Law Library, Jamail Center of Legal Research, The University of Texas School of LawTemple University Beasley School of Law LibraryTexas Tech University School of LawThe Digital PressThe Leo T. Kissam Memorial Library, Fordham University School of LawThe Mendik Library at New York Law SchoolThe Peter Rodino Law Library, Seton Hall Law SchoolThomas Jefferson School of Law LibraryThurgood Marshall Law Library, Francis King Carey School of Law, University of MarylandTulane Law Library, Tulane University Law SchoolUniversity at AlbanyUniversity of California, Irvine School of LawUniversity of Detroit Mercy School of LawUniversity of Illinois Law LibaryUniversity of Iowa Law LibraryUniversity of Massachusetts Dartmouth Law LibraryUniversity of Miami Law LibraryUniversity of Nebraska College of LawUniversity of New Hampshire School of Law LibraryUniversity of New Mexico School of Law LibraryUniversity of SaskatchewanUniversity of South Carolina Law LibraryUniversity of South Dakota School of Law, Law LibraryUniversity of Tennessee-Knoxville College of LawUniversity of Victoria LibrariesUniversity of Washington School of LawUniversity of Wisconsin Law LibraryValparaiso University School of Law LibraryVanderbilt Law SchoolVermont Law School Library, Vermont Law SchoolVillanova University School of Law, LibraryVincent C. Immel Law Library, Saint Louis UniversityWashington University LawWidener University School of LawWillamette University College of LawWilliam & Mary Law SchoolWilliam Taylor Muse Law Library, University of Richmond School of LawYale Law LibraryYoung Law Library University of Arkansas School of Law
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