COVID-19 Information
Public health information (CDC)
Research information (NIH)
SARS-CoV-2 data (NCBI)
Prevention and treatment information (HHS)
Log in

An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm
Eric Dinerstein et al. Bioscience. 2017.
Free PMC article
We assess progress toward the protection of 50% of the terrestrial biosphere to address the species-extinction crisis and conserve a global ecological heritage for future generations. Using a map of Earth's 846 terrestrial ecoregions, we show that 98 ecoregions (12%) exceed Half Protected; 313 ecoregions (37%) fall short of Half Protected but have sufficient unaltered habitat remaining to reach the target; and 207 ecoregions (24%) are in peril, where an average of only 4% of natural habitat remains. We propose a Global Deal for Nature-a companion to the Paris Climate Deal-to promote increased habitat protection and restoration, national- and ecoregion-scale conservation strategies, and the empowerment of indigenous peoples to protect their sovereign lands. The goal of such an accord would be to protect half the terrestrial realm by 2050 to halt the extinction crisis while sustaining human livelihoods.
Keywords: Aichi target 11; Nature Needs Half; ecoregions; global biodiversity conservation strategies; protected areas.
Figure 1. The 846 global ecoregions that…
Figure 2. The protection statuses of ecoregions…
Figure 3. The proportion of biodiversity goals…
Figure 4. a–c. Ecoregion conservation planning in…
Comment in
Ecology: A global plan for nature conservation.
Watson JEM, et al. Nature. 2017. PMID: 28953876No abstract available.
Comment on
Mapping Conservation Strategies under a Changing Climate.
Belote RT, et al. Bioscience. 2017. PMID: 28584341Free PMC article. No abstract available.
Similar articles
Evaluating and expanding the European Union's protected-area network toward potential post-2020 coverage targets.
Müller A, et al. Conserv Biol. 2020. PMID: 32022301
A "Global Safety Net" to reverse biodiversity loss and stabilize Earth's climate.
Dinerstein E, et al. Sci Adv. 2020. PMID: 32917614Free PMC article.
A global test of ecoregions.
Smith JR, et al. Nat Ecol Evol. 2018.PMID: 30397301
A Global Deal For Nature: Guiding principles, milestones, and targets.
Dinerstein E, et al. Sci Adv. 2019. PMID: 31016243Free PMC article. Review.
Freshwater biodiversity: importance, threats, status and conservation challenges.
Dudgeon D, et al. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc. 2006.PMID: 16336747 Review.
See all similar articles
Cited by 77 articles
Non-uniform tropical forest responses to the 'Columbian Exchange' in the Neotropics and Asia-Pacific.
Hamilton R, et al. Nat Ecol Evol. 2021.PMID: 34112995
Ants of the Palouse Prairie: diversity and species composition in an endangered grassland.
Dilworth KA, et al. Biodivers Data J. 2021.PMID: 34012316 Free PMC article.
Historical biogeography, systematics, and integrative taxonomy of the non-Ethiopian speckled pelage brush-furred rats (Lophuromys flavopunctatus group).
Onditi KO, et al. BMC Ecol Evol. 2021.PMID: 34011264 Free PMC article.
People have shaped most of terrestrial nature for at least 12,000 years.
Ellis EC, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021.PMID: 33875599 Free PMC article.
Integrating omics to characterize eco-physiological adaptations: How moose diet and metabolism differ across biogeographic zones.
Fohringer C, et al. Ecol Evol. 2021. PMID: 33841775Free PMC article.
See all "Cited by" articles
Ausubel JH. 2000. The great reversal: Nature's chance to restore land and sea. Technology in Society 22: 289–301.
Ausubel JH, Wernick IK, Waggoner PE. 2012. Peak farmland and the prospect for land sparing. Population and Development Review 38: 217–238.
Baker DJ, Hartley AJ, Burgess ND, Butchart SHM, Carr JA, Smith RJ, Belle E, Willis SG. 2015. Assessing Climate Change Impacts for Vertebrate Fauna across the West African Protected Area Network Using Regionally Appropriate Climate Projections. Diversity and Distributions 21: 991–1003.
Balmford A, Gaston KJ, Blyth S, James A, Kapos V. 2003. Global variation in terrestrial conservation costs, conservation benefits, and unmet conservation needs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100: 1046–1050. - PMC - PubMed
Balmford A, Gravestock P, Hockley N, McClean CJ, Roberts CM. 2004. The worldwide costs of marine protected areas. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101: 9694–9697. - PMC - PubMed
Publication types
MeSH terms
LinkOut - more resources
Full Text Sources
Europe PubMed Central
Ovid Technologies, Inc.
PubMed Central
Silverchair Information Systems
Other Literature Sources
scite Smart Citations
NCBI Literature Resources
MeSH PMC Bookshelf Disclaimer
Follow NLM
National Library of Medicine
8600 Rockville Pike
Bethesda, MD 20894
Title & authorsAbstractFiguresComment inComment onSimilar articlesCited byReferencesPublication typesMeSH termsLinkOut - more resources