Eukaryota - Wikispecies
Wikispecies
Eukaryota
Various eukaryotes.
Eukaryote cells.
Taxonavigation
Superregnum: Eukaryota
Regna (Whittaker & Margulis, 1978): AnimaliaPlantaeFungiProtista
Regna (Cavalier-Smith, 1981): AnimaliaPlantaeFungiChromistaProtozoa
Supergroups (Cavalier-Smith, 2009): BikontaUnikonta
Groups (Adl et al., 2012): AmoebozoaOpisthokontaExcavataSar (StramenopilesAlveolataRhizaria) – ArchaeplastidaIncertae sedis
Regna (Ruggiero et al., 2015): ProtozoaChromistaFungiPlantaeAnimalia
Name
Eucaryotes Chatton, 1925, 1937/1938, Chadefaud, 1960
Synonyms
Vernacular names
Alemannisch: Eukaryote
العربية: حقيقيات النوى
Boarisch: Eikaryóten
беларуская: Эўкарыёты
български: Еукариоти
বাংলা: সকেন্দ্রক অধিজগত
bosanski: Eukarioti
català: Eucariota
čeština: Jaderní
dansk: Eukaryoter
Deutsch: Eukaryoten
Ελληνικά: Ευκαρυώτες
English: Eukaryotes
Esperanto: Eŭkariotoj
español: Eucariontes
eesti: Eukarüoodid
فارسی: هسته داران
suomi: Aitotumaiset
Nordfriisk: Eukarioten
français: Eucaryotes
Gaeilge: Eocaróit
ગુજરાતી: સકેન્દ્રક અધિજગત
עברית: איקריוטיים
हिन्दी: सकेन्द्रक अधिजगत
hrvatski: Eukarioti
magyar: Eukarióták
հայերեն: Կորիզավորներ
interlingua: Eucaryotes
íslenska: Heilkjörnungar
italiano: Eucarioti
日本語: 真核生物ドメイン
ភាសាខ្មែរ: សុធញ្ញៈ
한국어: 진핵생물
Lëtzebuergesch: Eukaryota
lietuvių: Eukariotai
latviešu: Eikariots
македонски: Еукариоти
मराठी: सकेन्द्रक अधिजगत
नेपाली: सकेन्द्रक अधिजगत
Nederlands: Eukaryoten
norsk: Eukaryoter
occitan: Eucariòtas
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ: ਸਕੇਂਦਰਕ ਅਧਿਜਗਤ
polski: Eukarionty
português do Brasil: Eucarionte
português: Eucariota
română: Eucariote
русский: Эукариоты
සිංහල: සූන්‍යෂ්ටිකයන් (යුකැරියා)
slovenčina: Eukaryoty
shqip: Eukariotët
svenska: Eukaryoter
தமிழ்: மெய்க்கருவுயிரி
тоҷикӣ: Эукариотҳо
Türkçe: Ökaryotlar
українська: Еукаріоти
vèneto: Eucariota
Tiếng Việt: Sinh vật nhân chuẩn
中文: 真核域
Alternative classifications
Chatton (1925)
Chatton, É. 1925. Pansporella perplexa, amoebien à spores protégées parasite de daphnies. Réflexions sur la biologie et la phylogénie des protozoaires. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, Série 10 VIII: 5–84, Online. See Kussakin Drozdov (1994), [1], Katscher (2004), [2].

[p. 76ː]

[p. 77ː]
Chadefaud & Emberger (1960)
Chadefaud, M. & Emberger, L. (éds.). Traité de botanique systématique. Masson et Cie., Paris. Tome I. Les végétaux non vasculaires (Cryptogamie), par M. Chadefaud, 1960, 1 vol. de 1016 pages, [3]. Tome II. Les végétaux vasculaires, par L. Emberger, 1960, deux fascicules, 1540 pages, [4], [5].
Monde vivant
Jeffrey (1971)
Jeffrey, C. 1971. Thallophytes and kingdoms - a critique. Kew. Bull., 25, 291-299. See Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands, [6].
Margulis (1971)
Margulis, L. 1971. Whittaker's five kingdoms of organisms: minor revisions suggested by considerations of the origin of mitosis. Evolution 25: 242-245.
Leedale (1974)
Leedale, G. F. (1974). How many are the kingdoms of organisms? Taxon, 23 (1974), pp. 261–270, [7]. See Whittaker in Kreir (1977), Google Books.
[“Pteropod” scheme, p. 267:]
[“Fan” scheme, p. 269:]
Margulis (1974a)
Margulis, L. (1974a). Five-kingdom classification and the origin and evolution of cells. Evol. Biol. 7, 45-78, [8].
Margulis (1974b)
Margulis, L. (1974b). The classification and evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In: Handbook of Genetics, Vol. 1, R. C. King, (ed.), Plenum, New York, pp. 1-41, [9].
Edwards (1976)
Edwards, P. (1976). A classification of plants into higher taxa based on cytological and biochemical criteria. Taxon 25: 529–542.
Whittaker & Margulis (1978)
Whittaker, R. H. & Margulis, L. (1978). Protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms. Biosystems 10, 3–18.
Cavalier-Smith (1978)
Cavalier-Smith, T. 1978. The evolutionary origin and phylogeny of microtubules, mitotic spindles and eukaryote flagella. BioSystems, 10(1), 93-114.
Super-kingdom Eukaryota
Stewart & Mattox (1980)
Stewart, K.D. & Mattox, K. (1980). Phylogeny of phytoflagellates. In: Phytoflagellates (ed. E.Cox), New York: Elsevier/North Holland, pp. 433–462, [10], [11].
Eukaryotes [p. 456]
Cavalier-Smith (1981)
Cavalier-Smith, T 1981. Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?. Biosystems 14(3), 461-481 Online.
Nine eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 462]
Five eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 476-477]
Superkingdom Eukaryota
Seven eukaryote kingdoms proposal [p. 478]
Superkingdom Eukaryota
Parker et al. (1982)
Parker, S. P. (ed.). 1982. Synopsis and classification of living organisms. 2 vols. McGraw-Hill, New York, [12], [13]. See Brands (1989-2005), [14]
[Note: this classification is redundant for some ambiregnal protists. See Taylor et al. (1986), PDF.]
Cavalier-Smith (1983)
Cavalier-Smith, T. 1983. A 6-kingdom classification and a unified phylogeny. Pp. 1027–1034 in Endocytobiology II (H.E.A. Schenk & W. Schwemmler, eds.). De Gruyter, Berlin, [15], [16].
Möhn (1984)
From System und Phylogenie der Lebewesen, [17], [18].
Superkingdom Eukaryonta
Lipscomb (1985)
Lipscomb, Diana. 1985. The eukaryotic kingdoms. Cladistics 1: 127–40.
Eukaryotes
[Note: some eukaryote groups are not included in Lipscomb analysis.]
Corliss (1986)
From The kingdoms of organisms: from a microscopist’s point of view.
Superkingdom Eukaryota
Starobogatoff (1986)
Старобогатов Я.И. К вопросу о числе царств эукариотных организмов. // Труды Зоологического института АН СССР. 1986. T. 144. С. 4–25.
Starobogatoff, Y.I. 1986. On the number of kingdoms of eukaryotic organisms. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Instituta 144: 4–25. (In Russian) From Pelentier, B. (2007-2015), [19].
Eukaryota
Lipscomb (1989)
Lipscomb, D. (1989). Relationships among the eukaryotes. In: The Hiearchy of Life, B. Fernholm, K. Bremer, & H. Jornvall (eds.), Elsevier, New York. pp. 161-178, [20]. From Pelentier, B. (2007-2015), [21].
Eukaryotes
Woese (1990)
3-Domain System of Carl Woese
Terrabiota
Lipscomb (1991)
Lipscomb, D. (1991). Broad classification: the kingdoms and the protozoa. In: Parasitic Protozoa, Vol. 1, 2nd ed. J.P. Kreier & J.R. Baker (eds.). Academic Press, San Diego. pp. 81-136, [22].
Eukaryotes
Corliss (1994)
From An Interim Utilitarian ("User-friendly") Hierarchical Classification and Characterization of the Protists.
Empire Eukaryota
Kussakin & Drozdov (1994)
Кусакин О.Г, Дроздов А.Л. 1994. Филема органического мира. Часть 1. Пролегомены к построению филемы. С.-Петербург: Наука, [23].
Kussakin O.G., Drozdov A.L. (1994). Phylema of the living beings. Part 1. Prolegomena to the construction of phylema. Nauka, St.-Petersburg. (In Russian)
Cavalier-Smith (1995)
Cavalier-Smith, T. 1995. Zooflagellate phylogeny and classification. In: The biology of free-living heterotrophic flagellates (ed. S.A. Karpov), Cytology [Tsitologiia] 37(11): 1010–1029, Online.
Eukaryota
Starobogatov (1995)
Starobogatov, Y. I. (1995). The position of flagellated protists in the system of lower eukaryotes. In: The biology of free-living heterotrophic flagellates (ed. S.A. Karpov), Cytology, 37 (11): 1030–7, [24]. Also in: Abstracts of the Second International Symposium on the Biology of Free-living Heterotrophic Flagellates: 14th – 20th August 1994 – St. Petersburg, Russia. Europ. J. Protistol. 31, 109-118, [25].
Eukaryota
Margulis (1996)
From Archaeal-eubacterial mergers in the origin of Eukarya: Phylogenetic classification of life[26].
Eukarya (= Eukaryotae)
Hausmann & Hülsmann (1996)
From Hausmann, K., N. Hülsmann. Protozoology. 2nd ed. Thieme Verlag; New York, 1996. [27], [28].
Empire Eukaryota
Cavalier-Smith (1998)
From A revised six-kingdom system of life, [29].
Imperia Cellulata Vorontsov, 1965
Patterson (1999)
Patterson, D. J. (1999). The diversity of eukaryotes. The American Naturalist, 154($1–$2): S96-S124. [30].
Hausmann et al. (2003)
From Hausmann, K., N. Hulsmann, R. Radek. Protistology. 3rd ed. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchshandlung, Stuttgart, 2003.
Empire Eukaryota Chatton, 1925 (= Eukarya)
Cavalier-Smith (2003)
From Protist phylogeny and the high-level classification of Protozoa, [31].
Eukaryota
Kingdom Protozoa [11 phyla, out of brackets] [paraphyletic]
Cavalier-Smith (2004)
From Only six kingdoms of life, [32].
Empire Eukaryota (Cavalier-Smith 1998)
Adl et al. (2005)
From The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists, [33].
Eukaryota
Lecointre & Le Guyader (2006)
Lecointre, G. & Le Guyader, H. Classification phylogénétique du vivant, 3e éd., Belin, Paris, 2006, [34].
Le vivant
Cavalier-Smith (2009)
From Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations.
Eukaryota
[Note: Protists not included in the groups Plantae, Chromista, Animalia or Fungi belong in the Protozoa.]
Cavalier-Smith (2010)
Cavalier-Smith, T. (2010). Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree. Biol. Lett. 6 (3): 342–5, [35].
Eukaryota
Luketa (2012)
Luketa, S. (2012). New views on the megaclassification of life. Protistology, 7(4), 218-237.
Dominium Eukaryobiota
Adl et al. (2012)
Adl, S.M. et al. 2012. The revised classification of eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 59(5): 429–514, PDF. Erratum: Online.
Eukaryota
Cavalier-Smith (2013)
Cavalier-Smith, T. (2013). Early evolution of eukaryote feeding modes, cell structural diversity, and classification of the protozoan phyla Loukozoa, Sulcozoa, and Choanozoa Eur. J. Protistol. 49, pp. 115–178, Onlie.
Eukaryota [Figure 1.A proposal]
Eukaryota [Figure 1.B proposal]
Eukaryota [Figure 1.C proposal]
Eukaryota [Figure 2 proposal]
Brown et al. (2013)
Brown, M.W., Sharpe, S.C., Silberman, J.D., Heiss, A.A., Lang, B.F., Simpson, A.G.B., Roger, A.J. (2013). Phylogenomics demonstrates that breviate flagellates are related to opisthokonts and apusomonads. Proc Biol Sci 280(1769):20131755, Online.
Eukaryota
Pawlowski (2013)
Pawlowski, J. 2013. The new micro-kingdoms of eukaryotes. BMC Biol 11:40, Online.
Eukaryotes
Paps (2013)
Paps, J., Medina-Chacón, L. A., Marshall, W., Suga, H., & Ruiz-Trillo, I. 2013. Molecular phylogeny of unikonts: new insights into the position of apusomonads and ancyromonads and the internal relationships of opisthokonts. Protist 164(1), 2-12.
Eukaryota
Boudouresque (2015)
Boudouresque, C. F. 2015. Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Unicellular Eukaryotes. In: Environmental Microbiology: Fundamentals and Applications (pp. 191–257). Springer: Netherlands, Google Books.
Eukaryotes
Eukaryotes [alternative classification]
Ruggiero et al. (2015)
Ruggiero, M.A., Gordon, D.P., Orrell, T.M., Bailly, N., Bourgoin, T., Brusca, R.C., Cavalier-Smith, T., Guiry, M.D. & Kirk, P.M. 2015. A Higher Level Classification of All Living Organisms. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0119248 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0119248 . [Correction in 10(6): e0130114 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130114 .] Reference page
Derelle et al. (2015)
Derelle, R., Torruella, G., Klimeš, V., Brinkmann, H., Kim, E., Vlček, Č., Lang, B.F. & Eliáš, M. 2015. Bacterial proteins pinpoint a single eukaryotic root. PNAS 201420657. Online.
Eukaryota
Speijer et al. (2015)
Speijer, D., Lukeš, J., & Eliáš, M. (2015). Sex is a ubiquitous, ancient, and inherent attribute of eukaryotic life. PNAS 112(29), 8827-8834. Online.
Eukaryotes
Cavalier-Smith et al. (2015)
Cavalier-Smith, T., Chao, E.E. & Lewis, R. 2015. Multiple origins of Heliozoa from flagellate ancestors: New cryptist subphylum Corbihelia, superclass Corbistoma, and monophyly of Haptista, Cryptista, Hacrobia and Chromista. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 93: 331–362. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2015.07.004 Reference page
Eukaryota
Silar (2016)
Silar, Philippe. 2016. Protistes Eucaryotes: Origine, Evolution et Biologie des Microbes Eucaryotes. HAL: 462 Online.
Eukaryota
Tedersoo (2017)
Tedersoo, L. 2017. Proposal for practical multi-kingdom classification of eukaryotes based on monophyly and comparable divergence time criteria. BioRxiv 2017: 240929

Domain Eukaryota
Adl et. al (2018)
Adl, S.M., Bass, D., Lane, C.E., Lukeš, J., Schoch, C.L., Smirnov, A., ... & Cárdenas, P. 2018. Revisions to the Classification, Nomenclature, and Diversity of Eukaryotes. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. Online.
Eukaryota
Amorphea
Diaphoretickes
"Excavata"
CRuMs

Burki et. al (2020)
Burki, F., Roger, A. J., Brown, M. W., & Simpson, A. G. 2020. The new tree of eukaryotes. Trends in ecology & evolution 351: 43–55. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2019.08.008
Eukaryota
References
Links
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Last edited on 8 July 2021, at 08:09
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