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1,240 captures
02 Jun 2001 - 13 Nov 2022
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Terms of Use
Britannica.com is the online information, reference and knowledge Web site ("Site") owned and operated by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ("Britannica"), consisting of information services and proprietary content, links, search capabilities and other internet resources provided by Britannica, affiliates of Britannica and third parties. Your use of this Site constitutes your agreement to the terms, conditions and notices below ("Terms of Use"). If you do not agree with these Terms of Use, please do not use this Site. Britannica reserves the right to change, modify, add or remove portions of these Terms of Use at any time. Please check this page periodically for any modifications. Your continued use of this Site following the posting of any changes will mean that you have accepted the changes.

Copyright and Trademark Protection
All materials in this Site, including site layout, "look and feel," functionalities, design, text, images, graphics, video and audio content ("Materials") are the property of Britannica, its affiliated companies or licensors and are protected by international copyright and trademark laws. You may not publish, copy, display, distribute, transmit, perform, modify, create derivative works from, or sell any Materials, information, products or services obtained from this Site, except as otherwise expressly permitted under applicable law or as described in these Terms of Use.
Use and Downloading Materials
You may print or download Materials on the Site for your personal, non-commercial use, provided you keep intact all copyright and other proprietary notices. You may not engage in systematic retrieval of data or other Materials from this Site to create or compile, directly or indirectly, a collection, compilation, database or directory without written permission from Britannica. Nor may you mirror on your own site the home page or results pages of this Site. Use of the Materials on this Site for any purpose not expressly permitted in these Terms of Use is prohibited.
If you (or a legal entity you control) own and operate a Web site or engage in other Internet activity, such as electronic commerce, communication, publishing and transmission, and want to download, post, publish or use Materials for any such Web site or Internet activity, you may need a permission from Britannica, even though your Web site or Internet activity is free of charge. Unless you are a student, or your use of the Materials is short term and minimal, your use of the Materials may be subject to copyright and other legal restrictions.
Requests regarding the use of the Materials for any purpose other than educational, personal and occasional and minimal non-commercial use should be directed to:
syndication@us.britannica.com
Your Communications
You may not post information or materials to this Site that violate the rights of any third party or contain a virus or other harmful component. Nor may you use language or engage in any activity that is threatening, abusive, vulgar, discourteous or unlawful. Britannica reserves the right to remove or edit messages or material submitted by users. You may not use this Site for sale, trade or other commercial purposes.
You are responsible for your own communications and are responsible for the consequences of their posting. You must not do the following things: Post material that is copyrighted, unless you are the copyright owner or have the permission of the copyright owner to post it; post material that reveals trade secrets, unless you own them or have the permission of the owner; post material that infringes on any other intellectual property rights of others or on the privacy or publicity rights of others; post material that is obscene, defamatory, threatening, harassing, abusive, hateful or embarrassing to any other person or entity; post a sexually-explicit image; post advertisements or solicitations of business; post chain letters or the like; or impersonate another person.
Keep in mind that other users will have access to materials you post to this Site, and they might copy, modify or distribute it. By posting information or materials to this Site, you warrant and represent that you own or otherwise control all of the rights to the content and that public posting, and use of your information or materials by Britannica.com will not infringe or violate the rights of any third party. You automatically grant to Britannica, a royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable, non-exclusive license to use, reproduce, modify, publish, edit, translate, distribute, perform, and display your communications alone or as part of other works in any form, media, or technology whether now known or hereafter developed, and to sublicense such rights through multiple tiers of sublicenses.
Communications by Other Users
Britannica does not represent or guarantee the truthfulness accuracy, or reliability of any communications posted by other users or endorse any opinions expressed by users. You acknowledge that any reliance on material posted by other users will be at your own risk.
Britannica does not screen communications in advance and is not responsible for screening or monitoring material posted by users. If notified by a user of communication which allegedly does not conform to these Terms of Use, Britannica may investigate the allegation and determine in good faith and its sole discretion whether to remove or request the removal of such communication. Britannica has no liability or responsibility to users for performance or non-performance of such activities. Britannica reserves the right to expel users and prevent their further access to Britannica.com or any affiliate of Britannica, for violating these Terms of Use or the law and the right to remove such communications which are abusive, illegal or disruptive.
News Items
Publishers of news items do not generally obtain releases from subjects, individuals, groups or entities that are shown in their photographs or graphics or quoted in their texts. Also, no clearance is obtained from the owners of trademarks or copyrighted materials whose marks or materials are included in news items. Therefore, you will be solely responsible for obtaining any and all necessary releases if you use news items that you find on this Site. Neither Britannica nor any other publisher or news service will be liable for any delays, inaccuracies, errors or omissions in any news material or in the transmission or delivery of all or any part thereof or for any damages arising from any of the foregoing.
Linking, Framing and Third Party Sites
The Site provides links to other World Wide Web sites or resources. Hyperlinks to other Internet resources are provided for your convenience. The editors of Britannica have selected these resources as having some value and pertinence, but their development and maintenance are not under the direction of Britannica. Thus, the content, accuracy, opinions expressed, and other links provided by these resources are neither verified by Britannica editors nor endorsed by Britannica.
Because Britannica has no control over such sites and resources, you acknowledge and agree that Britannica is not responsible for the availability of such external sites or resources, and does not endorse and is not responsible or liable for any content, advertising, products, or other materials on or available from such sites or resources and shall not be liable, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused by the use of any such content, product or materials .
Any linking to the Site shall be at your own risk and expense and shall not be construed as an endorsement by or implication of any affiliation with Britannica, unless such linking is authorized by Britannica. Britannica reserves the right to object to or have removed any link that is determined by Britannica in its sole judgement to be inappropriate, inconsistent with the Site's image and reputation or otherwise creates an undue burden on the Site or on Britannica.
Britannica's consent must be obtained in before framing, deep-linking or other activity impacting the access to or the use of our Site. Failure to obtain such consent may result in an infringement claim or other legal action being brought.
Disclaimer of Warranties
Neither Britannica, its affiliates, nor any third-party content providers or licensors makes any warranty whatsoever, including without limitation: that the operation Britannica.com will be uninterrupted or error-free; that defects will be corrected; that this Site, including the server that makes it available, is free of viruses or other harmful components; as to the results that may be obtained from use of the materials on the Site; or as to the accuracy, reliability, availability, suitability, quality, or operation of any information, software, or service provided on or accessible from the Site.
BRITANNICA.COM AND ALL INFORMATION, PRODUCTS AND OTHER CONTENT (INCLUDING THIRD PARTY INFORMATION, PRODUCTS AND CONTENT) INCLUDED IN OR ACCESSIBLE FROM THIS SITE ARE PROVIDED "AS IS" AND WITHOUT WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND (EXPRESS, IMPLIED AND STATUTORY, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF TITLE AND NONINFRINGEMENT AND THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE), ALL OF WHICH BRITANNICA DISCLAIMS TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW. YOUR USE OF BRITANNICA.COM IS AT YOUR SOLE RISK.
Limitation of Liability
IN NO EVENT SHALL BRITANNICA, ITS AFFILIATES OR CONTENT PROVIDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, PUNITIVE OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF OR RELATED TO THE USE, INABILITY TO USE, AUTHORIZED USE, PERFORMANCE OR NONPERFORMANCE OF THIS SITE, EVEN IF BRITANNICA WAS PREVIOUSLY ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES AND REGARDLESS OF WHETHER SUCH DAMAGES ARISE IN CONTRACT, TORT, UNDER STATUTE, IN EQUITY, AT LAW OR OTHERWISE.
Indemnification
You agree to indemnify Britannica, its directors, officers, shareholders, parents, subsidiaries, affiliates, agents and licensors, from and against all losses, expenses, damages and costs, including reasonable attorneys' fees, resulting from your violation of these Terms of Use.
Governing Law
These Terms of Use are governed by the laws of the United States and the State of Illinois, without giving effect to any principles of conflicts of laws.
Copyrights
All contents of this Site are © 2002 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. or its licensors. All rights reserved. Encyclopædia Britannica is copyrighted 1994-2002 by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. The 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 Britannica Book of the Year are copyrighted 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate® Dictionary, Tenth Edition, is copyrighted 2000 by Merriam-Webster, Incorporated.
Photographs and illustrations are copyrighted by their respective owners, as noted in the credits.
Trademarks
Britannica.com and other marks that appear throughout this Site belong to Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., its affiliates or third party trademark owners. Except as permitted by applicable laws, you are prohibited from using any of the marks appearing on this Site without express written consent from the respective trademark owners.
Copyright Infringement Claims
If you believe that any copyright infringement exists on this Site, or any site with a hyperlink to this Site, please use the following process to notify Britannica. All claims of copyright infringement should be in writing and should be directed to our designated agent below:
Britannica.com
310 South Michigan Avenue
Chicago, Illinois 60604
Fax: 312/294-2108
E-mail: copyright@us.britannica.com
Please include the following information:
1. A physical or electronic signature of a person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed.
2. Identification of the copyrighted work claimed to have been infringed, or if multiple copyrighted works at a single Web site are covered by a single claim, a representative list of such works at that Web site.
3. Identification of the material that is claimed to be infringing or to be the subject of infringing activity and that is to be removed or access to which is to be disabled, and information reasonably sufficient to permit Britannica.com to locate the material.
4. Information reasonably sufficient to permit Britannica.com to contact the complaining party, such as an address, telephone number, and if available, an electronic mail address at which the complaining party may be contacted.
5. A statement that the complaining party has a good faith belief that use of the material in the manner complained of is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law.
6. A statement that the information in the notice is accurate, and under penalty of perjury, that the complaining party is authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed.
Britannica’s Premium Service Usage Agreement
For details regarding the Usage Agreement for subscribers to Britannica's Premium Service, please click here to read the full Usage Agreement​.
 
 
 
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