Copyright and Trademark Protection
Use and Downloading Materials
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You are responsible for your own communications and are responsible for the consequences of their posting. You must not do the following things: Post material that is copyrighted, unless you are the copyright owner or have the permission of the copyright owner to post it; post material that reveals trade secrets, unless you own them or have the permission of the owner; post material that infringes on any other intellectual property rights of others or on the privacy or publicity rights of others; post material that is obscene, defamatory, threatening, harassing, abusive, hateful or embarrassing to any other person or entity; post a sexually-explicit image; post advertisements or solicitations of business; post chain letters or the like; or impersonate another person.
Keep in mind that other users will have access to materials you post to this Site, and they might copy, modify or distribute it. By posting information or materials to this Site, you warrant and represent that you own or otherwise control all of the rights to the content and that public posting, and use of your information or materials by Britannica.com will not infringe or violate the rights of any third party. You automatically grant to Britannica, a royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable, non-exclusive license to use, reproduce, modify, publish, edit, translate, distribute, perform, and display your communications alone or as part of other works in any form, media, or technology whether now known or hereafter developed, and to sublicense such rights through multiple tiers of sublicenses.
Communications by Other Users
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Publishers of news items do not generally obtain releases from subjects, individuals, groups or entities that are shown in their photographs or graphics or quoted in their texts. Also, no clearance is obtained from the owners of trademarks or copyrighted materials whose marks or materials are included in news items. Therefore, you will be solely responsible for obtaining any and all necessary releases if you use news items that you find on this Site. Neither Britannica nor any other publisher or news service will be liable for any delays, inaccuracies, errors or omissions in any news material or in the transmission or delivery of all or any part thereof or for any damages arising from any of the foregoing.
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Because Britannica has no control over such sites and resources, you acknowledge and agree that Britannica is not responsible for the availability of such external sites or resources, and does not endorse and is not responsible or liable for any content, advertising, products, or other materials on or available from such sites or resources and shall not be liable, directly or indirectly, for any damage or loss caused by the use of any such content, product or materials .
Any linking to the Site shall be at your own risk and expense and shall not be construed as an endorsement by or implication of any affiliation with Britannica, unless such linking is authorized by Britannica. Britannica reserves the right to object to or have removed any link that is determined by Britannica in its sole judgement to be inappropriate, inconsistent with the Site's image and reputation or otherwise creates an undue burden on the Site or on Britannica.
Britannica's consent must be obtained in before framing, deep-linking or other activity impacting the access to or the use of our Site. Failure to obtain such consent may result in an infringement claim or other legal action being brought.
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Limitation of Liability
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Photographs and illustrations are copyrighted by their respective owners, as noted in the credits.
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Copyright Infringement Claims
If you believe that any copyright infringement exists on this Site, or any site with a hyperlink to this Site, please use the following process to notify Britannica. All claims of copyright infringement should be in writing and should be directed to our designated agent below:
Please include the following information:
1. A physical or electronic signature of a person authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed.
2. Identification of the copyrighted work claimed to have been infringed, or if multiple copyrighted works at a single Web site are covered by a single claim, a representative list of such works at that Web site.
3. Identification of the material that is claimed to be infringing or to be the subject of infringing activity and that is to be removed or access to which is to be disabled, and information reasonably sufficient to permit Britannica.com to locate the material.
4. Information reasonably sufficient to permit Britannica.com to contact the complaining party, such as an address, telephone number, and if available, an electronic mail address at which the complaining party may be contacted.
5. A statement that the complaining party has a good faith belief that use of the material in the manner complained of is not authorized by the copyright owner, its agent, or the law.
6. A statement that the information in the notice is accurate, and under penalty of perjury, that the complaining party is authorized to act on behalf of the owner of an exclusive right that is allegedly infringed.
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