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United Nations Resolutions
By Sarah al-Ansary

Sunday 10 August 2003, 13:34 Makka Time, 10:34 GMT  
The United Nation Security Council has adopted 66 resolutions concerning Iraq since 1990
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The United Nation Security Council has adopted 66 resolutions concerning Iraq since 1990, the majority of which are related to the invasion of Kuwait and subsequent developments.
Following is a list of the key resolutions: 
Resolution no. 661

Adopted by the Security Council on 6 August 1990. It imposed comprehensive economic sanctions on Iraq including all imports and exports, except for medical supplies and other items of humanitarian aid, as determined by the Council's Sanctions Committee.

The committee was established under the same resolution to supervise the implementation of sanctions. 
Resolution no. 687

Adopted on 3 April 1991 to declare the ceasefire based on agreement with Iraq. It stated that sanctions would remain in place until the Iraqi government complied with the obligations imposed by the Council.

It listed conditions for lifting or easing them. A special committee – UNSCOM - was also created under the same resolution for weapons inspections in Iraq. 
Resolution no. 986

Adopted by the Security Council on 14 April 1995, the resolution established the oil-for-food programme, enabling Iraq to sell up to $1 billion of oil every 90 days and use the income to buy humanitarian supplies to the country.

On 20 May 1996, the United Nations and the Iraqi government agreed on a “Memorandum of Understanding”  that regulated the implementation of the programme. The resolution went into effect on 10 December 1996, and the first food shipment arrived in Iraq on 20 March 1997.
Resolution no. 1051

Adopted by the Security Council on 27 March 1996 the resolution established the export/import long-term monitoring system and demanded that Iraq meet unconditionally all its obligations under the monitoring mechanism.

It also demanded Iraq and countries exporting to Iraq to notify UNSCOM and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regarding the supply of “dual-use” items to be later subjected to inspection upon their arrival in Iraq 
Resolution no. 1153

It was adopted by the Security Council on 20 February 1998. 

The resolution authorized the increase of Iraqi oil exports to $5.256 billion under the oil-for-food programme, and requested that the Secretary General appoint a group of oil experts to inspect Iraq’s oil producing capacity and the need for spare parts and equipments.

This resolution was passed after the Security General had approved an “enhanced distribution plan” for the new revenue.
Resolution no. 1175

Adopted by the Security council on 19 June 1998 the resolution authorized Iraq to import up to $300 million worth of oil industry spare parts and equipment to enable it to increase its oil production.
Resolution no. 1284

Adopted on 17 December 1999 the resolution replaced the Special Commission (UNSCOM) with the United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC), and stressed the importance of the full implementation of all relevant resolutions regarding Iraq.

The resolution also removed the limit on Iraqi oil exports, and demanded Iraq’s full cooperation and compliance with the inspection team. 
Resolution no. 1409

Unanimously adopted on 14 May 2002 the resolution approved a revised “Good Review List” (GRL) of military related goods or commodities and set procedures for its implementation beginning on 30 May 2002.

States were authorised to sell or supply any commodities not included on the GRL, and the Council would regularly conduct thorough reviews to the list.

The resolution also extended the oil-for-food programme for 180 days.
Resolution no. 1441

Unanimously adopted on 8 November 2002 the resolution established what it called an “enhanced inspection regime” in order to implement a full and verified completion of the disarmament process recognised by resolution 687 (1991).

The Iraqi government had to provide to UNMOVIC, the IAEA, and the Council with a currently accurate and complete declaration of all the aspects of its weapon’s programme in 30 days from the date of the resolution.

The resolution also stated that inspections had to resume in no later than 45 days and report on their progress to the Council in 60 days.
Resolution no. 1472

Adopted on 28 March 2003 the resolution made technical and temporary adjustment to the suspended oil-for-food programme.

It also authorised the Secretary General to administer, facilitate and establish alternative locations, inside and outside Iraq, for the delivery of humanitarian supplies and equipment contracted by the Iraqi government.

The resolution gave the Secretary General the authority to take necessary coordination as the situation in Iraq stabilises and the programme resumes. The council also stressed the right of the Iraqi people to determine their own political future and natural resources.
Resolution no. 1483

It was adopted by the Council on 22 May 2003 by a vote of 14 in favour, with Syria not participating in the voting.
The resolution lifted civilian sanctions imposed on Iraq for the past 13 years and granted temporary governing powers to the United States and its led partners, along with a UN Special Representative, until an “internationally recognised, representative government” established by the Iraqi people assumes the responsibilities of the authority.

According to the resolution, the UN Special Representative assumes several responsibilities which include coordination of UN activities in Iraq. The Council also permitted the full resumption of oil sales, and extended the oil-for-food programme for six months.
Important Links
  1. Security Council resolutions concerning Iraq
  2. OIC declaration of 5 March 2003 summit
  3. UN Reports on Human developments in Iraq
  4. IAEA inspections in Iraq
  5. UNMOVIC – Basic facts
  6. The UN oil-for-food programme
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