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Help:Multilingual support (Indic)
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Several pages on Wikipedia use Indic scripts to illustrate the native representation of names, places, quotes and literature. Unicode is the encoding used on Wikipedia and it contains support for a number of Indic scripts. However, before Indic scripts can be viewed or edited, support for complex text layout must be enabled on your operating system. Some older operating systems do not support complex text rendering and you should not use such systems to edit Indic scripts.
This page lists the methods for enabling complex text rendering based on the operating environment or browser you are using. Many of the methods highlighted can also be used for non-Indic complex scripts such as Arabic.
Contents [hide]
1 Check for existing support
2 Devanagari bilingual Keyboard INSCRIPT layout
3 Windows 95, 98, ME and NT
4 Windows 2000
4.1 Viewing Indic text
4.2 Inputting Indic text
5 Windows XP and Server 2003
5.1 Viewing Indic text
5.2 Inputting Indic text
6 Windows Vista
6.1 Viewing Indic text
6.2 Inputting Indic text
7 Mac OS 9 and earlier
8 Mac OS X
8.1 Viewing Indic text
8.2 Inputting Indic text
9 Linux
9.1 GNOME
9.1.1 Viewing Indic text
9.1.2 Inputting Indic text
9.2 KDE
9.2.1 Viewing Indic text
9.2.2 Inputting Indic text
9.3 Distribution-specific advice
9.3.1 Debian (and derivatives like Ubuntu)
9.3.1.1 Viewing Indic text
9.3.1.2 Inputting Indic text
9.3.2 Fedora
9.3.2.1 Installing Indic fonts
9.3.2.2 Keyboard support
9.3.3 Arch Linux
9.3.4 Gentoo
9.3.4.1 Installing Indic fonts
9.3.4.2 Inputting Indic text
10 FreeBSD
10.1 Installing Indic fonts
10.2 Inputting Indic text
11 NetBSD, DragonFlyBSD, pkgsrc
12 Unicode OpenType fonts
13 References
14 External links
14.1 Other information
14.2 Fonts
14.3 Other input methods
14.3.1 Online transliteration/input
14.3.2 Browser plugins
14.3.3 Software to be installed
[edit]
Check for existing support
The following table compares how a correctly enabled computer would render the following scripts with how your computer renders them:
ScriptExample of
rendering
Mac OS X
inbuilt support
Linux or BSD
inbuilt support
Windows
inbuilt support
Correct renderingYour computerOS
10.3
OS
10.4
OS
10.5
OS
10.6
KDE
with
Qt
GNOME
with
Pango
9x/ME
or
NT
2000XP
or
2003
XP
SP2
Vista/7
Devanagari
क + ि → किYesYesYesYesYesYesnoYesYesYesYes
Tamil
க + ே → கேnoYesYesYesYesYesnoYesYesYesYes
Gujarati
ક + િ → કિYesYesYesYesYesYesnonoYesYesYes
Gurmukhi
ਕ + ਿ → ਕਿYesYesYesYesYesYesnonoYesYesYes
Kannadaಕ + ಿ → ಕಿnononeeds
font
needs
font
YesYesnoYesYesYesYes
Teluguయ + ీ → యీnononeeds
font
needs
font
YesYesnonoYesYesYes
Bengali,
Assamese
ক + ি → কিnoneeds
font
needs
font
needs
font
YesYesnononoYesYes
Malayalamക + െ → കെnononeeds
font
needs
font
YesYesnononoYesYes
Tibetanར + ྐ + ྱ → རྐྱnonoYesYesnoneeds
font
nonononeeds
patch
Yes
Sinhalaඵ + ේ → ඵේnononeeds
font
needs
font
noYesnonononeeds
font
Yes
Oriyaକ + େ → କେnonononoYesYesnonononeeds
font
Yes
Thaiฐ + ู → ฐูYesYesYesYesYesYesnoYesYesYesYes
Laoລ + າ + ວ → ລາວnoneeds
font
needs
font
needs
font
noYesnonononeeds
font
Yes
Khmerម + ្ + ស + ៅ → ម្សៅnononeeds
font
needs
font
noYesnonononeeds
font
Yes
Burmeseဃ + ြ → ဃြnonononononeeds
font
nonononeeds
font
needs
font
If the rendering on your computer matches the rendering in the images for the scripts, then you have already enabled complex text support. You should be able to view text correctly in that script. However, this does not mean you will be able to edit text in that script. To edit such text you need to have the appropriate text entry software on your operating system.
[edit]
Devanagari bilingual Keyboard INSCRIPT layout
To type in Devenagari script, use of INSCRIPT​इंस्क्रिप्ट keyboard is permanent and easy solution. Inscript is standard developed by CDAC and approved by Government of India.
टीवीएस कंपनी के इंस्क्रिप्ट द्विभाषीय कीबोर्ड
Devanagari Bilingual keyboard INSCRIPT​. This keyboard can be configured to work with - Windows 2000, Windows XP, Ubuntu Linux and fedora Linux etc. See below sections for detailed instructions.
[edit]
Windows 95, 98, ME and NT
These operating systems contain no inbuilt support for Indic scripts. Indic Scripts can only be seen properly in Internet Explorer. You also need to have an appropriate Unicode font installed in your system for that script. It is suggested to install Internet Explorer 6.0 because it has better support for Indic scripts.
Mozilla Firefox does not support Indic scripts properly on these operating systems unless a modified version of the program is used, such as the one found here. This is due to a bug in Firefox [1], [2]. This bug is now removed in Firefox 3 Alpha. But Firefox 3 does not support Windows 98/ME. Firefox 3.6 still does not render Tibetan correctly, but Firefox 3.7 probably will.[1]
No Unicode Keyboard Driver Engines (Like Indic IME, BarahaIME etc) are available for these older systems. One can either use online typing tools or offline text editors specially made for this purpose. A list of such tools is given here.
User:Keymanweb/Keymanweb provides a web-based keyboard that is integrated into Wikipedia with support for 300 languages, including most of the complex scripts listed on this page.
[edit]
Windows 2000
Supports: Devanagari​, Kannada, Tamil
Complex text support needs to be manually enabled.

[edit]
Viewing Indic text
If you don't have the Windows CD or don't want to juggle with CD right now, you can simply download this zip file and extract its contents to a folder. When prompted for Windows CD, simply point to this folder using 'Browse' option of the prompt window.
[edit]
Inputting Indic text
You must follow the steps above before you perform the remaining steps.
[edit]
Windows XP and Server 2003
Supports: Bengali (XP SP2), Devanagari​, Gujarati, Gurmukhi​, Kannada, Malayalam (XP SP2), Tamil, Telugu. The default Bengali font, Vrinda, appears too small, so it might be desirable to install another font. Oriya works with SP2 and later if you install unicode fonts.
Complex text support needs to be manually enabled.
[edit]
Viewing Indic text
  1. Install at least one Unicode font in your system, associated with the language that you want to view correctly, or install a Unicode font which contains large character set for many different languages.
  2. Go to Start > Control Panel.
  3. If you are in "Category View" select the icon that says "Date, Time, Language and Regional Options" and then select "Regional and Language Options".
  4. If you are in Classic View select the icon that says "Regional and Language Options".
  5. Select the "Languages" tab and make sure you select the option saying "Install files for complex script and right-to-left languages (including Thai)". A confirmation message should now appear - press "OK" on this confirmation message.
  6. Allow the OS to install necessary files from the Windows XP CD and then reboot if prompted.
  7. Install or Enable your Language(Script) support on your web-browser software:
    • On Internet Explorer 6: Go to Tools -> Internet Options -> General -> Languages, and add your particular language(s) that you want to view correctly.
    • On Firefox 1.5: Go to Tools -> Options -> Advanced -> General -> Edit Languages..., and add your particular languages(s) that you want to view correctly.
    • On Firefox 3.0: Go to Tools -> Contents -> Languages -> Choose..., and add your particular languages(s) that you want to view correctly.
  8. Go to your web-browser's "view" menu and set the "character encoding" or "encoding" feature to: Unicode (UTF-8).
In Firefox, if Indic Scripts are still appearing incorrectly, you may then use the latest version of usp10.dll on your system and it may also be necessary to install a Unicode OpenType font.
This is an optional step, only when you want to use a specific Unicode font for your chosen particular language(s) for viewing webpages.
To use a specific font for webpages:
[edit]
Inputting Indic text
Windows XP has inbuilt InScript Keyboards for nearly all Indian languages. You can add them via Control Panel. You must follow the steps above before you perform the remaining steps.
You can use the combination ALT + SHIFT to switch between different keyboard layouts (e.g. from a UK Keyboard to Gurmukhi and vice-versa). If you want a language bar, you can select it by pressing the "Language Bar..." button on the "Text Services and Input Languages" dialog and then selecting "Show the language bar on my desktop". The language bar enables you to visually select the keyboard layout you are using.
For the people who are not able to use the above InScript Keyboard, there are some other Keyboard Drivers available. For Phonetic typing BarahaIME or PramukhIME is suggested and for Remington typing IndicIME is suggested.
Baraha and PramukhIME are Phonetic based software and includes nearly all of Indic languages. Baraha Direct included in Baraha Package supports both ANSI & Unicode while BarahaIME supports only Unicode.
Indic IME 1 (v5.0) is available from Microsoft Bhasha India. This supports Hindi Scripts, Gujarati, Kannada and Tamil. Indic IME 1 gives the user a choice between a number of keyboards including Phonetic, InScript and Remington.
If you do not have Windows CD, there is a modified version of the installer for Hindi named Hindi Toolkit which automatically installs Indic Support as well as Hindi Indic IME.
[edit]
Windows Vista
Supports: Bengali, Devanagari​, Gujarati, Gurmukhi​, Kannada, Malayalam​, Oriya, Sinhala, Tamil, Telugu, Tibetan. The default Bengali font, Vrinda, appears too small, so it might be desirable to install another font.
Complex text support is automatically enabled.
[edit]
Viewing Indic text
This page contains Burmese script. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Burmese characters.
You do not need to do anything to enable viewing of Indic text, except Burmese script (examples: ဃ + ြ → ဃြ and မြန်မာအက္ခရာ​) which needs a font not pre-installed on Vista. Follow the help provided in Template:Burmese characters at the right.
[edit]
Inputting Indic text
Windows Vista, like Windows XP, has inbuilt InScript keyboards for nearly all Indian languages. You can add them via the Control Panel.
  1. Go to Start > Control Panel
  2. If you are in normal view, select Change keyboards or other input methods from under Clock, Language and Region.
  3. If you are in Classic view, select Regional and Language Options.
  4. Select the Keyboards and Languages tab if it is not already selected.
  5. Select the Change keyboards... button.
  6. Choose you desired language(s) from the list and expand them using the '+' sign. Then, expand the item which says Keyboard and tick your preferred keyboard layout(s).
  7. Select OK, and OK again to save the changes.
The hot key combination for switching between languages is Left Alt+Shift.
For Phonetic typing BarahaIME and PramukhIME or the ISIS keyboards by Prof Gautam Sengupta​[​dead link] are suggested and for Remington typing IndicIME is suggested.
Another alternative is User:Keymanweb/Keymanweb which provides a web-based keyboard that is integrated into Wikipedia with support for 300 languages, including most of the complex scripts listed on this page. The ISIS keyboards are available through Keymanweb
[edit]
Mac OS 9 and earlier
The Indian Language Kit, available from Apple at additional cost,[3] provides support for Devanagari​, Gujarati and Gurmukhi​. No third-party Unicode solutions are known, though numerous custom-encoded fonts exist.
[edit]
Mac OS X
Note: Additional fonts for these scripts have to be in /Library/Fonts in order for text to be displayed.
[edit]
Viewing Indic text
You do not need to do anything to enable viewing of Indic text as long as you use Safari or most other Cocoa applications, which fully support rearrangement and substitution for AAT​-based fonts. Firefox after 2.0 renders Indic text (except Oriya, Sinhala and Tibetan), although older versions do not replace प+ि with ि+प. (From version 3.0 on, text is rendered in the correct order) (You will need a unicode script selected that supports Indic script, like Code 2000). Opera also provides some support, although considerable bugs remain as of version 9.2 (though Opera at least renders the glyphs).
Carbon applications such as Microsoft Word and Adobe Photoshop do not generally support Indic script.
[edit]
Inputting Indic text
Specific keyboard layouts can be enabled in System Preferences, in the International pane. Switching among enabled keyboard layouts is done through the input menu in the upper right corner of the screen. The input menu appears as an icon indicating the current input method or keyboard layout — often a flag identified with the country, language, or script. Specific instructions are available from the "Help" menu (search for "Writing text in other languages").
Mac OS 10.4 system software comes with two installable Keyboard input options for Tamil: Murasu Anjal and Tamilnet 99. One needs to do the following steps to activate them:
i) Open "international" located within System Preferences and select "language". Select the "edit list", select "Tamil" from the list of languages shown and click OK.
ii) Select "input menu" to see a list of keyboard options available. Select "Anjal" and "Tamilnet99" keyboards under Murasu Anjal Tamil and Click OK.
iii) Anjal and Tamilnet99 keyboard icons appear immediately in the list of keyboards to select under the country flag in the top menu bar.
An alternate way to activate the keyboard(s) for Devanagari (Hindi etc.):
i) Open "International" located within System Preferences and select the "Input Menu" tab. (ii) Check the option for "Devanagari" and/or "Devanagari - QWERTY". (iii) Check the "Show input menu in menu bar" option at the bottom of the "International" panel. Close the panel, and the new keyboard(s) should be available for selection when you click on the menu bar icon (upper right corner).
SIL distributes a freeware Ukelele that allows anyone to design their own input keyboard for Mac OS X.
Another alternative is User:Keymanweb/Keymanweb which provides a web-based keyboard that is integrated into Wikipedia with support for 300 languages, including most of the complex scripts listed on this page.
[edit]
Linux
[edit]
GNOME
Supports: Bengali, Devanagari​, Gujarati, Gurmukhi​, Kannada, Malayalam​, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu, Tibetan
[edit]
Viewing Indic text
You do not need to do anything to enable viewing of Indic text in GNOME 2.8 or later. Older versions may have support for some, but not all Indic scripts. Ensure you have appropriate Unicode fonts for each script you wish to view or edit.
Some web browsers may require you to enable Pango rendering to view Indic text properly.
For instance, to support Kannada display, the following is sufficient: sudo apt-get install language-pack-kn language-support-kn language-pack-gnome-kn ttf-kannada-fonts similarly, to support Tamizh display, the following is sufficient: sudo apt-get install language-pack-ta language-support-ta language-pack-gnome-ta ttf-tamil-fonts and to support Telugu display, the following is sufficient: sudo apt-get install language-pack-te language-support-te language-pack-gnome-te ttf-telugu-fonts
For SUSE 10.1 you have to add the "MOZ_ENABLE_PANGO=1″ to your .profile to make the effect permanent.
  1. Go to your home directory, then edit the .profile file -it is a hidden file.
  2. Scroll down to the last line of the file and add: export MOZ_ENABLE_PANGO=1
  3. Save the .profile file. Restart for the effect to take place
[edit]
Inputting Indic text
Using SCIM
Another option is to use SCIM. To enable it,
For more check (on Fedora) http://www.ruturaj.net/fedora-6-hindi-support-scim on Fedora, or (on Debian/Ubuntu) http://dev.sampada.net/Baraha_like_Input_on_Linux
Another alternative is User:Keymanweb/Keymanweb which provides a web-based keyboard that is integrated into Wikipedia with support for 300 languages, including most of the complex scripts listed on this page.
[edit]
KDE
Supports: Bengali, Devanagari​, Gujarati, Gurmukhi​, Kannada, Malayalam​, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu.
[edit]
Viewing Indic text
You do not need to do anything to enable viewing of Indic text. Ensure you have appropriate Unicode fonts for each script you wish to view or edit.
[edit]
Inputting Indic text
Another alternative is User:Keymanweb/Keymanweb which provides a web-based keyboard that is integrated into Wikipedia with support for 300 languages, including most of the complex scripts listed on this page.
[edit]
Distribution-specific advice
[edit]
Debian (and derivatives like Ubuntu)
Supports: Bengali, Devanagari​, Gujarati, Gurmukhi (including the variants for Punjabi), Kannada, Malayalam​, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu, Tibetan.
[edit]
Viewing Indic text
Enter as root:
apt-get install ttf-indic-fonts
and when the installation is complete restart the X server.
The package name for the TrueType font of Thai is ttf-thai-tlwg
For viewing Tibetan script
Enter as root:
apt-get install ttf-tmuni apt-get install ttf-dzongkha
For Mozilla and Firefox, see the comments above under "gnome". Rendering should work correctly "out of the box" as of Debian-4.0 (etch).
[edit]
Inputting Indic text
SCIM supports text input in Indic languages including phonetic layout. SCIM should be working by default in recent distributions. More instructions on using and configuring SCIM can be found on help.ubuntu.com [4]
Another alternative is User:Keymanweb/Keymanweb which provides a web-based keyboard that is integrated into Wikipedia with support for 300 languages, including most of the complex scripts listed on this page.
[edit]
Fedora
Supports: Bengali, Devanagari​, Gujarati, Gurmukhi (including the variants for Punjabi), Kannada, Malayalam​, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu among others.
[edit]
Installing Indic fonts
For example, to install Kannada fonts, Simply enter as root on the console and type in the command:
yum install fonts-kannada
This will download the Kannada fonts from the repositories and install it.
Similarly, for Hindi, say, enter as root on the console and type in the command:
yum install fonts-hindi
[edit]
Keyboard support
Start the Add/Remove software applet. For example in KDE, say, navigate to System and then Add/Remove software. In the applet window, select Languages on the list box to your left hand side. In the right hand side list box, select the Indian languages of interest to you.
For example, to have Kannada key board support, check the box for Kannada Support. Similarly, for Hindi support, say, check the box for Hindi Support.
It has been observed that for Kannada, Fedora not only puts in Kannada keyboard support, but also provides transliteration support and also the keyboard support for KGP (Kannada Ganaka Parishad) keyboards. With this feature, users can directly type in Kannada words in Roman script to be transliterated to Kannada text in the application of your choice. For example into your browser, text editor, document editor, email client etc. Users can also use native Kannada keyboards, KGP based or otherwise to type in Kannada texts directly.
An alternative is User:Keymanweb/Keymanweb which provides a web-based keyboard that is integrated into Wikipedia with support for 300 languages, including most of the complex scripts listed on this page.
[edit]
Arch Linux
Supports: Bengali (including the variants for Assamese​), Gujarati, Gurmukhi (including variants for Punjabi), Devanagari (for Hindi and Sanskrit), Kannada, Malayalam​, Marathi, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu.
To install Indic fonts:
pacman -S ttf-indic-otf
To enter Indic text in GNOME/KDE, follow the instructions in the respective sections above.
[edit]
Gentoo
Supports: Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu,
[edit]
Installing Indic fonts
emerge lohit-fonts
Note: The lohit-fonts package was earlier named media-fonts/fonts-indic.
The mozilla-*-bin products shipped by gentoo are directly taken from mozilla's ftp servers and aren't built with pango support. Unless you notice a problem with this you need to build your own copy with the "moznopango" USE flag disabled: USE="-moznopango" (notice the minus sign, which in this case results in a double negation). Firefox 3 will be shipping with pango enabled by default.
[edit]
Inputting Indic text
emerge -av scim-tables scim-m17n
Study the USE flags and the LINGUAS flags and set them accordingly depending on your desktop environment and language support needed. The following needs to be set whenever you login (append it to your .xinitrc or .xsession).
export XMODIFIERS=@im=SCIM #case matters for this variable! export GTK_IM_MODULE=scim export QT_IM_MODULE=scim
Mozilla apps and precompiled software such as acroread might not play well with scim (C++). In such cases, make use of scim-bridge (C - avoiding C++ ABI issues) [5].
emerge scim-bridge
and startup firefox as:
% GTK_IM_MODULE=scim-bridge firefox
You might have to start the scim daemon manually. (Add it your session's startup)
scim -d
SCIM is a unified frontend for currently available input method libraries.
A simple alternative is User:Keymanweb/Keymanweb which provides a web-based keyboard that is integrated into Wikipedia with support for 300 languages, including most of the complex scripts listed on this page.
[edit]
FreeBSD
Supports: Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu.
[edit]
Installing Indic fonts
cd /usr/ports/x11-fonts/fonts-indic && make install clean
The binary package of firefox (when you do pkg_add -r firefox) might give the same problems as in Gentoo's bin package (needs confirmation)
cd /usr/ports/x11-fonts/fonts-te && make install clean
The above port is for Telugu Pothana2000 Fonts.
[edit]
Inputting Indic text
See Gentoo's section above.
[edit]
NetBSD, DragonFlyBSD, pkgsrc
Similar to FreeBSD
cd /usr/pkgsrc/fonts/lohit-fonts && make install clean
[edit]
Unicode OpenType fonts
This section lists OpenType fonts, supported by Microsoft Windows and most Linux distributions. For AAT fonts (required for the Apple Macintosh), see the Mac OS X section above.
If you have followed the instructions for your computer system as mentioned above and you still cannot view Indic text properly, you may need to install a Unicode font:
The governmental Department of Information Technology (India) has provided Unicode Indic fonts for four of the Indic scripts used in India (several versions for Devanagari, one version for each of Kannada, Malayalam and Tamil).
WAZU JAPAN's Gallery of Unicode Fonts is an excellent resource for all Indic scripts.
[edit]
References
  1. ^ Bug 441110 - Add Tibetan to: Options-> Content -> Fonts & Colors -> Advanced is resolved. It already works in the nightly builds.
  2. ^ My Myanmar Unicode System. The Second Generation
[edit]
External links
[edit]
Other information
[edit]
Fonts
[edit]
Other input methods
[edit]
Online transliteration/input
[edit]
Browser plugins
[edit]
Software to be installed
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