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1. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women arts. 12 and 5, adopted Dec. 18, 1979, G.A. Res. 34/180, U.N. GAOR, 34th Sess., Supp. No. 46, at 193, U.N. Doc. A/34/46 (1979) (entered into force Sept. 3, 1981) [hereinafter CEDAW]. 

2. CEDAW Committee, General Recommendation 24, Women and Health (art. 12), para. 17, UN Doc. A/54/38 (Part I) (1999), hereinafter CEDAW Committee, General Recommendation 24].

3.  The Special Rapporteur on the Right to Health, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, delivered to the General Assembly (Oct. 19, 2006).

4. Ministry of Health and Population. (2007) National Maternal Mortality Surveillance System, Egypt: MOHP, USAID, available at: http://www.esdproj.org/site/DocServer/CC8_Nahla_Roushdy.pdf?docID=1118 [hereinafter 2007 National Maternal Mortality Surveillance System].

5. Ministry of Economic Development (2008), Achieving the Millennium Development Goals: A Midpoint Assessment ,Egypt.

6. WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and World Bank, (2005) Maternal Mortality in 2005, Estimates Developed by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA and World Bank.

7. Central Agency for Public Moblisation & Statistics (CAPMAS), (2009) Annual Report, Egypt: CAPMAS Publications.

8. 2007 National Maternal Mortality Surveillance System, supra note 4.

9. M. Stewart, Gynecologic Morbidity is High for Egyptian Women in a Pair of Rural Villages, 20 INTERNATIONAL FAMILY PLANNING PERSPECTIVES  40, 41 (1994).

10. Government of Egypt, Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 18 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women: Combined sixth and seventh periodic reports of States parties: Egypt, para. 4.2.3, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/EGY/7 (Sept. 5, 2008) [hereinafter Egypt Government Report].

11. Avoidable factors include “woman and family factors,” “health facility factors,” or “medical team factors.” See Karima Khalil & Farzaneh Roudi-Fahimi, Making Motherhood Safer in Egypt, POPULATION REFERENCE BUREAU 5 (2004).

12. MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND POPULATION [EGYPT], 2004 EGYPT SERVICE PROVISION ASSESSMENT SURVEY 111 (Apr. 2005) [hereinafter 2004 ESPAS].

13. Y. Nabil, K. Khalil, H. Sholkamy, M. Cherine, N. Hassanein , A. Elnoury, L. Mohsen, M. Breebaart and Z. Farahat (2002), Hospital Practices for Normal Labour: An Observational Study, The Relationship of Observed Practices to Evidence Based Medicine, Egypt: Population Council [hereinafter 2002 Hospital Practices for Normal Labour].

14. Ibid.

15. A. Nabhana & M.S. Ahmed-Tawfik, Understanding and attitudes towards patient safety concepts in obstetrics, 98 INT’L J. OF GYNECOLOGY AND OBSTETRICS 212, 215 (2007).

16. Basic supplies for conducting a normal delivery include an instrument to cut the umbilical cord, umbilical cord clamps or ties, a suction apparatus, antibiotic eye ointment for the newborn, and a disinfectant for cleaning the perineal area. See 2004 ESPAS, at 135, supra note 12.

17. The items necessary to address common complications include needles and syringes, intravenous solution and infusion sets, injectable oxytocic medicinces, and suture supplies.  See 2004 ESPAS, at 111, supra note 12.

18. 2004 ESPAS, at 213, supra note 12.

19. 2002 Hospital Practices for Normal Labour, supra note 13.

20. 2004 ESPAS, at 111, supra note 12.

21. MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND POPULATION [EGYPT] & EL-ZANATY AND ASSOCIATES, 2008 EGYPT DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY 125 (Mar. 2009) at 131 [hereinafter 2008 EDHS].

22. 2004 ESPAS, at 106, supra note 12.

23. 2004 Making Motherhood Safer in Egypt, at 110, supra note 11.

24. 2008 EDHS, at 128, supra note 21.

25. 2008 EDHS, supra note 21.

26. 2004 ESPAS, at 115, supra note 12.

27. 2008 EDHS, at 123-4, supra note 21.

28. Egypt Government Report , at para 12.1.2., supra note 10. 

29. 2008 EDHS, at 143, supra note 21.

30. 2004 ESPAS, at 111, supra note 12.

31. 2004 ESPAS, at 130-31, supra note 12.

32. CEDAW Committee, General Recommendation 24, at para 27, supra note 2.

33. CEDAW Committee, General Recommendation 24, supra note 2.

34. Concluding observations: Andorra, ¶ 48, U.N. Doc. A/56/38 (2001); Antigua and Barbuda, ¶ 258, U.N. Doc. A/52/38/Rev.1,Part II (1997);Belize, ¶ 56, U.N. Doc. A/54/38 (1999); Bolivia, ¶ 82, U.N. Doc. A/50/38 (1995); Chile, ¶ 139, U.N. Doc. A/50/38 (1995); Chile, ¶ 228, U.N. Doc.A/54/38 (1999); Chile, ¶ 19, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/CHI/CO/4 (2006); Colombia, ¶ 393, U.N. Doc.A/54/38 (1999); Cyprus, ¶ 55, U.N. Doc. A/51/38 (1996); Dominican Republic, ¶ 337, U.N. Doc. A/53/38(1998); Ireland, ¶ 185, U.N. Doc. A/54/38 (1999); Jordan, ¶ 180, U.N. Doc. A/55/38 (2000); Liechtenstein,¶ 169, U.N. Doc. A/54/38 (1999); Luxembourg, ¶ 210, U.N. Doc. A/52/38/Rev.1, Part II (1997); Mauritius, ¶196, U.N. Doc. A/50/38 (1995); Mauritius, ¶ 30, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/MAR/CO/5 (2006); Namibia, ¶ 111, U.N.Doc. A/52/38/Rev.1, Part II (1997); Nepal, ¶¶ 139, 147, U.N. Doc. A/54/38 (1999); Panama, ¶ 201, U.N. Doc.A/55/38/Rev.1 (1998); Paraguay, ¶ 131, U.N. Doc. A/51/38 (1996); Peru, ¶ 339, U.N. Doc. A/53/38/Rev.1 (1998); Portugal, ¶ 345, A/57/38 (2002); Saint Vincentand the Grenadines, ¶ 140, U.N. Doc. A/52/38/Rev.1 (1997); Suriname, ¶ 29, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/SUR/CO/3 (2007); United Kingdom of Great Britain and NorthernIreland, ¶ 309, U.N. Doc. A/55/38 (1999); Venezuela, ¶ 236, U.N. Doc. A/52/38/Rev.1 (1997); Zimbabwe, ¶ 159, U.N. Doc. A/53/38 (1998).

35. CEDAW Committee’s Concluding Observations to: Belize, 01/07/99, ¶ 56, U.N. Doc. A/54/38; Chile, 09/07/99, ¶ 228, U.N. Doc. A/54/38; Colombia, 04/02/99, ¶ 393, U.N. Doc. A/54/38; Dominican Republic, 14/05/98, ¶ 337, U.N. Doc. A/53/38; Paraguay, 09/05/96, ¶ 131, U.N. Doc. A/51/38.

36. Concluding observations: Dominican Republic, ¶ 309, U.N. Doc. A/59/38 (SUPP) (2004); Jordan, ¶ 9, U.N. Doc. CEDAW/C/JOR/CO/ (2007); Jordan, ¶ 180, U.N. Doc. A/55/38 (2000); Myanmar,¶¶ 129–130, U.N. Doc. A/55/38 (2000); Panama, ¶ 201, U.N. Doc. A/55/38/Rev.1 (1998); Venezuela, ¶ 236, U.N. Doc. A/52/38/Rev.1 (1997).

37. Article 260- Anyone who intentionally aborted a pregnant woman either through beating or other means of harm is punishable by imprisonment; Article 261- Anyone who intentionally aborted a pregnant woman by giving her medication or other means causing this or assisting her, whether with her consent or not, is punishable by incarceration. Article 262- A woman who willingly accepts taking medication or the use of previously mentioned methods or enables another in using these methods resulting in an abortion is punishable by the above mentioned penalty. Article 263- If the person performing the abortion is a doctor or surgeon or pharmacist or traditional birth attendant he will be sentenced to imprisonment.

38. Physicians'  Code of Ethics Article, issued by Minister of Health Decree 238 for the year 2003, 5 September 2003, Article 29.

39. Case No. 167/66, Court of Cassation, 4 November, 1998.

40. Case No. 167/66, Court of Cassation, 4 November, 1998.

41. Case No. 302/40, Court of Cassation, 27 December, 1970.
42. Case No. 195/29, Court of Cassation, 23 November 1959.

43. Case No. 118/57, Court of Cassation, 12 May 1987.

44. M. Berer, (2009) 'The Cairo Compromise on Abortion and its Consequences for Making Abortion Safe and Legal', in L. Reichenbach, and N. Roeseman , (ed) Reproductive Health and Human Rights, the Way Forward, p154. Reproductive Health and Human Rights, the way forward, 2009, P154.

45. SD. Lane ,  MT.  Mouelhy,  and J. Jok , (1998) Buying Safety, the Economics of Reproductive Risk and Abortion in Egypt, USA: University of Syracuse [hereinafter 1998 Buying Safety, the Economics of Reproductive Risk and Abortion in Egypt].

46. H. El-Damanhoury (2009), Determinants of Induced Abortion in Cairo, Egypt: New Woman Foundation (unpublished) [hereinafter 2009 Determinants of Induced Abortion in Cairo].

47. 1998 Buying Safety, the Economics of Reproductive Risk and Abortion in Egypt, supra note 45.
48. 2009 Determinants of Induced Abortion in Cairo, supra note 46.

49. 1998 Buying Safety, the Economics of Reproductive Risk and Abortion in Egypt, supra note 45.

50. S. SINGH, D. WULF, S. HUSSAIN , A. BANKOLE  AND  G. SEDGH, (2008) ABORTION WORLDWIDE, A DECADE OF UNEVEN PROGRESS, USA: GUTTAMACHER [hereinafter 2008  Abortion Worldwide].

51. 1998 Buying Safety, the Economics of Reproductive Risk and Abortion in Egypt, supra note 45.

52. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, UNSAFE ABORTION: GLOBAL AND REGIONAL ESTIMATES OF THE INCIDENCE OF UNSAFE ABORTION AND ASSOCIATED MORTALITY  (5TH ED., 2003).

53. M. Fernandez , F. Coeytaux , D. Harrison and R. Leon, 'Assessing the Global Availability of Misopristol , l Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, Vol 105, (2009), p180-186. 

54. Ipas, (2002) Human Rights, Unwanted Pregnancy & Abortion Related Care, Reference Information & Illustrative Cases,  USA: Ipas.

55. Ministry of Health & Population (MOHP), (2005) Standard Practices for Maternal & Child Health & Reproductive Health Services, Egypt: MOPH Publications, available at: http://www.drguide.mohp.gov.eg/NewSite/E-Learning/ICD10/front%20&back%20... [hereinafter 2005 Standard Practices for Maternal & Child Health & Reproductive Health Services]. 

56. World Health Organization (WHO), (2003) Guidelines for Medico-Legal Care for Sexual Violence, Geneva: WHO, at p64, available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2004/924154628X.pdf.

57. United States Agency for International Development , (2007) Report of the Post-Abortion Care Technical Advisory Panel.

58. D. Huntington , L. Nawar , M. Naguib , EO. Hasan , and N. Attallah, (1995), Improving the Medical Care and Counselling of Post-abortion Patients in Egypt, Egypt: Population Council; D. Huntington , L. Nawar , H. Yossef , N. Abdel-Tawab, and E. Osman, (1998) The Postabortion Caseload in Egyptian Public Hospitals: a Descriptive Study, Egypt: Population Council and Egyptian Fertility Care Society; D. Huntington , L. Nawar , H. Yossef , N. Abdel-Tawab, and E. Osman, (1997)  Scaling- up Improved  Postabortion Care in Egypt, Introduction to University and Ministry of Health and Population Hospitals, Egypt: Population Council and Egyptian Fertility Care Society.

59. World Health Organization, (2003) Safe Abortion Technical & Policy Guidance for Health System, Geneva: WHO.

60. 2007 Report of the Post-Abortion Care Technical Advisory Panel, supra note 57.

61. D. Huntington , L. Nawar , H. Yossef , N. Abdel-Tawab, and E. Osman, (1997)  Scaling- up Improved  Postabortion Care in Egypt, Introduction to University and Ministry of Health and Population Hospitals, Egypt: Population Council and Egyptian Fertility Care Society.

62. D. Huntington, and  L. Nawar , (2003), Moving from Research to Program the Egyptian Postabortion Care Initiative, International Family Planning Perspectives, Vol 29, No. 3.

63. Population Council, (2004,) Lessons from Introducing Postabortion Care in Egypt, Population Briefs, Vol 10, No3.

64. 2005 Standard Practices for Maternal & Child Health & Reproductive Health Services, supra note 55.

65. CEDAW Committee, General Recommendation 19, Violence Against Women, para. 24(m), U.N. Doc. A/47/38 (1992).

66. N. Abdel-Tawab, H. Yossef , and J. Bratt , (2007), Linking Family Planning with Postabortion Services in Egypt : Testing the Feasibility, Acceptability and Effectiveness of Two Models of Integration, Egypt: Population Council and Family Health International.

67. 2007 Linking Family Planning with Postabortion Services in Egypt, supra note 66.

68. D. Huntington , L. Nawar , H. Yossef , N. Abdel-Tawab, and E. Osman, (1998) The Postabortion Caseload in Egyptian Public Hospitals: a Descriptive Study, Egypt: Population Council and Egyptian Fertility Care Society, at 28 [hereinafter 1998 The Postabortion Caseload in Egyptian Public Hospitals ].

69. 2008 Abortion Worldwide, supra note 50.

70. R. Dabsh  and F. Fehmy , (2009),  Abortion in the Middle East and North Africa, USA: Population Reference Bureau.

71. 1998 The Postabortion Caseload in Egyptian Public Hospitals, supra note 68.

72. A. Ahmed , R. Sorour, N. Ford. and A. Ankoumah , A. (1996),  Abortion Decision-Making in an Illegal Context: A Case Study from Rural Egypt, Conference proceedings, Abortion Matters Conference, The Netherlands.

73. 2008 Abortion Worldwide, supra note 50.

74. 1998 The Postabortion Caseload in Egyptian Public Hospitals, supra note 68.

75. CEDAW, General Recommendation 9, Statistical Data Concerning the Status of Women, UN Doc 44/38 (1989).

76. CEDAW at 193, supra note 1.

77. CEDAW Committee, General Recommendation 21, Equality in marriage and family relations, para. 22, U.N. Doc. A/47/38 (1994).

78. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, WORLD HEALTH STATISTICS 2009, 18. (reporting 59.2% contraceptive prevalence) [hereinafter 2009 World Health Statistics]; see also Egypt Government Report, at para. 14.2.b.1, supra note 10, (reporting 59% contraceptive prevalence); EGYPT STATE INFORMATION SERVICE, YEAR BOOK 2007. (reporting 63.3% contraceptive prevalence) [hereinafter 2007 Egypt State Information Service]; 2008 EDHS at 71, supra note 21 (reporting 60% contraceptive prevalence among currently married women).

79. Egypt Government Report, at para. 12.1.2, supra note 10.

80. 2008 EDHS at 62, supra note 21.

81. 2008 EDHS, supra note 21.

82. 10.3%, 2009 World Health Statistics, at 21, supra note 78; 9% 2008 EDHS, at 108, supra note 21.

83. 2008 EDHS, at 108, supra note 21.

84. 2008 EDHS, supra note 21.

85. 2008 EDHS, at 114, supra note 21.

86. 2008 EDHS, at 113, supra note 21.

87. The number of family planning centers increased from 4400 in 1992 to 6550 in 2007.  2007 Egypt State Information Service, supra note 78; 2008 EDHS, at 147, supra note 21.

88. The number of family planning centers increased from 4400 in 1992 to 6550 in 2007.  2007 Egypt State Information Service, supra note 78.

89. 2004 ESPAS, at 98, supra note 12.

90. 2004 ESPAS, at 98, supra note12.

91. 2008 EDHS, at 147, supra note 21.

92. 2008 EDHS, at 147, supra note 21.

93. Fayssal M. Farahat, Challenges Facing Female Physicians in Egypt, 64 ARCHIVES OF ENVTL. & OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH 121, 121-23 (2009).

94. Egypt Government Report, supra note 10.

95. 2004 ESPAS, at 87-8, supra note 12.

96. 2004 ESPAS, at 91, supra note 12.

97. 2004 ESPAS, at 93, supra note 12.
98. 2008 EDHS, at 68, supra note 21.

99. 2008 EDHS, at 92-3, supra note 21.

100. 2004 ESPAS, at 92, supra note 12.

101. 2004 ESPAS, at 92, supra note 12.

102. 2004 ESPAS, at 92, supra note 12.

103.  2004 ESPAS, at 102, supra note 12.

104.  2008 EDHS, at 63, supra note 21.

105.  2008 EDHS, at 50-60, supra note 21.

106. 2008 EDHS, at 87, supra note 21.

107. 2008 EDHS, at 89-90, supra note 21.

108. CEDAW Committee, General Recommendation 24, at para. 8, supra note 2.

109. Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment 14: The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health, para. 23, U.N. Doc. E/C.12/2000/4 (2000).

110. Committee on the Rights of the Child, General Comment 4, para. 27, U.N. Doc CRC/GC/2003/4 (2003).
111. CEDAW Committee, General Recommendation 24, at  para. 12(b), supra note 2.

112. Report of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women, 24th & 25th Sessions, para. 352, U.N. Doc. A/56/38 (2001) [hereinafter 2001 CEDAW Committee Concluding Observations on Egypt].

113. 2008 EDHS, at 99-100, supra note 21.

114. DeJong, et al., The Sexual and Reproductive Health of Young People in the Arab Countries and Iran, 25 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH MATTERS 53 (2005) [hereinafter 2005 The Sexual and Reproductive Health of Young People]. 

115. USAID, Egypt: Youth Champions Working for Policy Implementation, YOUTH REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH POLICY COUNTRY BRIEF SERIES NO. 4, 2 (2005). (citing 2005 USAID study) [hereinafter 2005 USAID Youth Reproductive Health Policy Paper].

116. Doaa Oraby, et al., Assessment of Youth Friendly Clinics in Teaching Hospitals in Egypt (ed.  Mariam Shouman, 2008) Family Health International with UNFPA, [hereinafter 2008 Assessment of Youth Friendly Clinics].

117.  Ibid.

118.  Ibid.

119.  2008 Assessment of Youth Friendly Clinics, supra note 116.

120.  2008 Assessment of Youth Friendly Clinics, supra note 116.

121.  2008 Assessment of Youth Friendly Clinics, supra note 116.

122.   2005 The Sexual and Reproductive Health of Young People, supra note 114.

123.  Ibid.

124.  2005 USAID Youth Reproductive Health Policy Paper, supra note 115.

125.  A.A. Olukoya et al., Special Communication from the World Health Organization: Unsafe abortion in adolescents, 75 INT’L J. OF GYNECOLOGY & OBSTETRICS 140 (2001).

126.  Martha Brady, et al., Providing New Opportunities to Adolescent Girls in Socially Conservative Settings: The Ishraq Program in Rural Upper Egypt 9 (2007) Population Council.

127.  2005 The Sexual and Reproductive Health of Young People, supra note 114.

128.  2008 EDHS, at 106, supra note 21.

129.  WORLD BANK, GENDER ASSESSMENT SURVEY OF EGYPT, para. 50 (June 2003).

130.  S. Douki, et al., Women’s mental health in the Muslim world: Cultural, religious, and social issues, 102 J. OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS 177, 183 (2007).

131. Roudi-Fahimi, Farzaneh and and Loris Ashford, Sexual and Reproductive Health in the Middle East and North Africa, (Cairo: Population Reference Bureau, 2008), 43-7. 

132. Egypt Government Report, at para 59, supra note 10.

133. 2005 The Sexual and Reproductive Health of Young People, supra note 114.

134. Y. Affifi (2009), Tadmeen al-Siha al-Injabiyya fi al- Manahij al-Dirasiyya (paper presented at the Collaboration to Raise Youth Awareness about Reproductive Health Issues Seminar, Cairo, Egypt, Nov. 2009); F. Fouad (2009), Munaqashat Mawdu'at al-Sihha al-Injabiyya fi Wasa'il al-I'lam" (paper presented at the Collaboration to Raise Youth Awareness about Reproductive Health Issues Seminar, Cairo, Egypt, Nov. 2009).

135.  G. Barsoum (2009), ’Ard Ba'd al-Nata'ij al-Awaliyya li Bahth al-Nash' w'al-Shabab fi Misr (paper presented at the Collaboration to Raise Youth Awareness about Reproductive Health Issues Seminar, Cairo, Egypt, Nov. 2009).

136.  2008 EDHS, at 145-6, supra note 21. 

137.  El-Mouelhy, Mawaheb, Amel Fahmy & Ahmed Ragab, Investigating Women's Sexuality in Relation to Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt, study briefing disseminated at the Cairo Family Planning and Development Association Study Briefing Session, Cairo, 11 Nov. 2009 [hereinafter 2009 Investigating Women's Sexuality].

138.  CEDAW General Recommendation No 19, UN GAOR, 1992, Doc. No. A/47/38, at para6.

139.  Ibid at para 9.

140.  Sexual violence is defined as "any sexual act, attempt to obtain a sexual act, unwanted sexual comments or advances, or acts to traffic, or otherwise directed, against a person’s sexuality using coercion, by any person regardless of their relationship to the victim, in any setting, including but not limited to home and work" (The World Health Organization)

141.  El-Zanaty Fatma and Ann Way, (2006) Egypt Demographic and Health Survey 2005 (Egypt Ministry of Health and Population; Egypt National Population Council) [hereinafter 2005 EDHS].

142.  Elnashar A.M., EL-Dien Ibrahim M., Eldesoky M.M., Aly O.M., El-Sayd Mohamed Hassan M. 'Sexual abuse experienced by married Egyptian women', International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics (2007) 99, 216–220
143.  National Council for Women (2009) Egypt, Violence against Women Study, Summary of findings, USAID and the National Council for Women, Cairo: Egypt [hereinafter 2009 Violence against Women Study].

144.   The interviewing techniques used in the surveys did not provide sufficient confidentiality to respondents and it is likely that many women refrained from revealing intimate or private matters in front of other people.

145.  2005 EDHS, supra note 141.

146.  Boy A. and Kulczycki A. (2008) 'What We Know About Intimate Partner Violence in the Middle East and North Africa', Violence against Women 2008; 14; 53 [hereinafter 2008 'What We Know About Intimate Partner Violence...']
147.  2008 EDHS, supra note 21.

148.  2008 'What We Know About Intimate Partner Violence...', supra note 146.

149.  Mohammad, R. and Shoukry, A. (2008) "Clouds in Egypt's Sky" Sexual Harassment: from Verbal Harassment to Rape, A Sociological Study, Egyptian Center for Women’s Rights, Cairo.

150.   New Woman Foundation (undated) Malaf al Taharosh al Gensy (Sexual Harassment), available at www.nwrcegypt.org/.

151.  Ezzat, M. 2009, Istighlal Agsad al Nisaa bayn al Haymana al Zokoreya wa Soltat al 'Amal, New Woman Foundation, Cairo [hereinafter 2009 Istighlal Agsad al Nisaa] .

152.   Abdel Hameed, A. and Eleleimy Z. (2009) Jarayem al Ightisab bayn al Waqe' wal Tashree', New Woman Foundation, Cairo [hereinafter 2009 Jarayem al Ightisab bayn al Waqe' wal Tashree'].

153.  Ibid.

154.  2009 Istighlal Agsad al Nisaa, supra note 151.

155.  N. Ammar, (2008) 'The Relationship Between Street Children and the Justice System in Egypt', in the International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology.

156. ECPAT International (2008) Global Monitoring Report on the status of action against the commercial sexual exploitation of children, Egypt, Bankok.

157. Human Rights Watch. 2003 Charged with being children: Egyptian police abuse of children in need of protection. New York: Human Rights Watch.

158. Social Research Center (submitting to NGO Coalition on Child Rights), (2007) The inclusion of the excluded, A rights based approach to child protection policies in Egypt, American University Press

159. Martha Brady, et al., Providing New Opportunities to Adolescent Girls in Socially Conservative Settings: The Ishraq Program in Rural Upper Egypt 1 (2007) Population Council.

160.  2005 The Sexual and Reproductive Health of Young People, supra note 114.

161.  Egynews 09/08/2009.

162.  CEDAW Committee, General Recommendation 19, supra note.

163.  2001 CEDAW Committee Concluding Observations on Egypt, at para. 344, supra note 112.

164.  Case No 45/1193, Court of Cassation, 22 November 1928.

165.  2009 Jarayem al Ightisab bayn al Waqe' wal Tashree', supra note 152.

166.  See for example the ICC's Rules of Evidence and Procedure, rule 70(c): "Consent cannot be inferred by reason of the silence of, or lack of resistance by, a victim to the alleged sexual violence"

167.  2009 Jarayem al Ightisab bayn al Waqe' wal Tashree', supra note 152.

168.  International Criminal Court Rules of Evidence and Procedure, rule 71

169.  2009 Jarayem al Ightisab bayn al Waqe' wal Tashree', supra note 152.

170.   2009 Jarayem al Ightisab bayn al Waqe' wal Tashree', supra note 152.

171.  CEDAW Committee, General Recommendation No 19, supra note 138.

172.  2009 Jarayem al Ightisab bayn al Waqe' wal Tashree', supra note 152.

173.   2009 Jarayem al Ightisab bayn al Waqe' wal Tashree', supra note 152.

174.   General Assembly resolution 52/86; A/52/635, para 8 (b).

175.  2009 Violence against Women Study, supra note 143.

176.  2009 Violence against Women Study, supra note 143.

177.  From interviews with lawyers working on SV cases, December 2009.

178. World Health Organization (2009) Women and Health: Today's Evidence Tomorrow's Agenda.

179. 2008 'What We Know About Intimate Partner Violence...', supra note 146.

180. 2009 Violence against Women Study, supra note 143.

181. Ibid.

182. Ibid.

183. Ibid

184. Ibid.

185. Ibid.

186.   The Council of Europe estimates that there should be one bed for every 10,000 inhabitants, which would require Egypt to have more than 10,000 shelter beds.

187. Human Rights Watch (2004) Divorced from Justice: Women's Unequal Access to Divorce in Egypt. New York: Human Rights Watch, [hereinafter 2004 Divorced from Justice].

188. Ibid.

189. 2004 Divorced from Justice, supra note 187.

190. Ibid.

191. 2009 Violence against Women Study, supra note 143.

192. 2004 Divorced from Justice, supra note 187.

193. 2009 Violence against Women Study, supra note 143.

194. Article 242bis of the Penal Code, amendment brought about by the Child Law 126/2008.

195. The Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, its Causes and Consequences, Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, its Causes and Consequences, delivered to the Economic and Social Council, E/CN.4/2003/75/Add.1 (Feb. 27, 2003) at para. 725.

196. 2008 EDHS, at 197, supra note 21.

197. 2008 EDHS, at 197, supra note 21.

198. 2008 EDHS, at 203, supra note 21.

199. 2008 EDHS, at 204, supra note 21.

200. 2008 EDHS, at 203, supra note 21.

201. 2009 Investigating Women's Sexuality, supra note 137.

202. Ibid.

203. 2008 EDHS, at 207, supra note 21.

204. S.R.A. Mostafa, et al., (2006) What do medical students in Alexandria know about female genital mutilation?, 12 E. Mediterranean Health J. 78, 89 at 89 [hereinafter 2006 What do medical students in Alexandria know about female genital mutilation?].

205. The Female Genital Cutting Education and Networking Project, Egypt: Doctors Face Trial Over Female Circumcision (Sept. 5, 2007).

206. 2006 What do medical students in Alexandria know about female genital mutilation?, at 78, supra note 204 at 78.

207. 2006 What do medical students in Alexandria know about female genital mutilation?, at 85 supra note 204 at 85.

208. Ibid.
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Regular View
Supplementary Information on Egypt Presented to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against WomenSupplementary Information on Egypt Presented to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against WomenThe ReportI. The Right to Reproductive Health Services and Information (Articles 10, 12, 14(2)(b), and 16(1)(e))II. The Right to be Free from Discrimination, Including Gender-Based Violence (Articles 1, 2, 12, 14, and 16)Footnotes