At the heart of the matter is the difference between democracy and constitutional government. The problem has been difficult to recognize since, for at least a century in the West, democracy has coincided with liberal democracy. The mix of freedoms associated with constitutional liberalism is theoretically distinct from democracy. From the time of Plato and Aristotle, democracy has meant rule by the people. This view of democracy, as a process of selecting governments, has been articulated by scholars ranging from Alexis de Tocqueville to Joseph Schumpeter and Robert Dahl. Political Scientist Samuel Huntington has explained why this is the case: Elections -- open, free, and fair -- are the essence of democracy, the inescapable sine qua non. Yet governments produced by elections may be inefficient, corrupt, shortsighted, irresponsible, dominated by special interests, and incapable of adopting policies demanded by the public good. While these qualities make such governments undesirable, they do not make them undemocratic. Democracy is one public virtue, not the only one, and the relation of democracy to other public virtues and vices can only be understood if democracy is clearly distinguished from the other characteristics of political systems. But elections and mass mobilization do not always vouchsafe liberal constitutional government. There is a growing unease at the rapid spread of multiparty elections across south-central Europe, Asia, Africa, and Latin America, perhaps because of what happens after the elections. Some elected popular leaders have bypassed their parliaments and ruled by presidential decree, eroding basic constitutional practices.