JULSEPJAN
17
201620172018
42 captures
21 Jul 2017 - 15 May 2021
About this capture
Amid Temple Mount tumult, the who, what and why of its Waqf rulers
home page
Amid Temple Mount tumult, the who, what and why of its Waqf rulers
Jordan lost control of Jerusalem in 1967, but is now at the heart of a crisis that threatens to plunge the city into violence
By DOV LIEBERJuly 20, 2017, 6:52 pm7
499
shares
File: Waqf officials and others prepare to pray outside the Temple Mount, in Jerusalem's Old City, rather than enter the compound via metal detectors set up by Israel following a terror attack, July 16, 2017. (Yonatan Sindel/Flash90)
As tensions ratchet up in Jerusalem’s Old City following Israel’s installation of metal detectors at gates to the Temple Mount in response to a terror attack there, attention has turned to the byzantine warren of authorities that control and manage the ultra-sensitive holy site.
While Israel controls access to the compound, inside its nine gates the Jerusalem Awqaf Department — sometimes called the Islamic Religious Endowments Authority, or simply the Waqf — exerts near total control.
Get The Times of Israel's Daily Edition by email and never miss our top storiesFREE SIGN UP
The Waqf is entirely controlled and funded by the Jordanian government. It administers daily life on the Temple Mount, which includes the Al-Aqsa Mosque, Dome of the Rock, archaeological sites, museums and schools.
Since Israel captured the site in 1967, an uneasy relationship between authorities and the Waqf has been maintained, with both saying they are committed to keeping the delicate status quo that allows non-Muslims to visit, but not worship, on the Mount.
For many non-Muslims, both the Waqf and the status quo remain a mystery, and questions abound as to how the body has come to wield such power in a city that is ostensibly completely under the control of the state of Israel.
Flexing their muscles
The Temple Mount is the holiest site in Judaism, the place where the two ancient Jewish Temples stood. It is considered the third holiest site in Islam, the spot where the prophet Mohammed ascended to heaven.
Muslim worshipers pray outside the Old City of Jerusalem’s Lions Gate in protest of the placement of metal detectors at entrances to the Temple Mount on July 17, 2017. (AFP Photo/Ahmad Gharabli)
 
Ever-present acrimony between Israeli officials and the Waqf have come to a head since July 14, when three Arab-Israeli men opened fire on policemen guarding just outside the holy site, killing two. According to Israeli authorities, the trio stashed their guns in the Temple Mount and Israel quickly closed access to the site — the first time in decades it was shuttered on a Friday — leading to outcry from Muslims around the world. On Thursday, police release video footage showing how the guns were smuggled into the holy site.
When it reopened on Sunday, police had installed metal detectors at two of the gates, and other gates were closed. Arab officials have criticized the measure as breaking the status quo — and part of an alleged process of a slow takeover by Israel of the site — and the Waqf has refused to enter the site, encouraging other Muslims to boycott as well, leading to protest prayers outside the gates that have devolved into near-daily clashes.
Israel argues the security measures are necessary in the wake of Friday’s “defiling” of the site by the killers, to ensure such shooting attacks do not occur at the sensitive holy site in the future.
The ensuing standoff has threatened to plunge the tinderbox city back into the throes of violence. Israel and Jordan are reportedly in talks to come up with a compromise agreement, but in the meantime both the Israeli authorities and Waqf officials are holding to their positions — Israel is not removing the metal detectors, and the Waqf is discouraging worshipers from entering the compound so long as they remain.
So what’s a waqf anyway?
To understand the purpose of the institution known as the Jerusalem Waqf, it helps to know what a waqf is.
In Islamic law, a person may decide to donate a property and its revenues to the public for charitable or religious purposes. This property then becomes a waqf, or holding, in perpetuity.
Examples of waqfs (awqaf is the Arabic plural) can be homes, fields, water reservoirs, schools, orphanages and mosques.
In Israel, the best known waqf property is the Temple Mount, known to Muslims as the Haram al-Sharif. For Muslims, the entire esplanade is considered a mosque.
As the modern state grew in the Middle East through 19th and 20th centuries, these properties were taken under the authority of governments.
View of Jerusalem showing the Old City in the foreground against new parts of the city in the background, January 9, 2017. (Yonatan Sindel/Flash90)
Until 1917, waqf properties in Jerusalem were controlled by the Ottoman Empire.
During the British Mandate period, responsibility for the awqaf was put under the control of the Supreme Muslim Council—the body of Palestinian Muslims appointed by the British colonial government to administer the Sharia courts and awqaf.
In 1948, when the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan took over the West Bank and East Jerusalem, it transferred responsibility for the city’s awqaf, including the Temple Mount compound, to its own ministry of awqaf.
When Israel conquered East Jerusalem in 1967, then defense minister Moshe Dayan decided it would be best if the Jordanian Awqaf Ministry would continue to administer the site, in order to avoid a larger conflagration with the Muslim world. Jews would be allowed to visit, but not to pray, he decided — utilizing the rabbinical consensus in Jewish religious law that Jews should not set foot atop the Mount for fear of defiling the temples’ most sacred space, the Holy of Holies.
From then on, it was agreed that Israel would be responsible for security around the perimeter of the site, while the Jordanian-controlled Jerusalem Waqf would be responsible for what happens within the compound.
Moshe Dayan at the Temple Mount, June 7, 1967 (Ilan Bruner / GPO)
This situation continued informally until 1994, when Israel and Jordan signed a peace treaty.
Article 9 of the treaty states: “Israel respects the present special role of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan in Muslim Holy shrines in Jerusalem. When negotiations on the permanent status will take place, Israel will give high priority to the Jordanian historic role in these shrines.”
Jordan officially separated from the West Bank in 1988, in order to allow for Palestinian leadership to take over, but not from East Jerusalem.
Jordan argued it would not allow a “protection gap” of Islamic holy sites in Jerusalem while the PLO and Israel were in negotiations over the future of the city.
Up until 1994, the grand muftis of Jerusalem—who are considered the leading religious figures for Palestinians—were appointed by Jordan. But in a deal with the PLO, the role was transferred to Palestinian leadership that year.
The current Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Muhammad Hussein, who has played a central role in opposing Israeli measures since the shooting attack on Friday, was appointed by Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas in 2006, and his salary is paid by the PA.
Jordan also considers itself to have a special historical relationship with Jerusalem, especially Al-Aqsa Mosque, since the time of the British Mandate.
Jerusalem’s Mufti Mohammed Hussein posing in front of the Dome of the Rock mosque atTemple Mount in Jerusalem’s Old City. (Ahmad Gharabli/AFP)
While the Supreme Muslim Council (SMC) was in charge of administering the site, the then ruler of Mecca and leader of the revolt against the Ottoman Empire Hussein ibn Ali al-Hashimi, whose son became the first king of Jordan, was accepted as its custodian by the SMC leadership. This custodianship has been passed down by to subsequent Jordanian kings.
From 1921 to 2010, the Royal Jordanian Hashemite family spent over $1 billion on maintaining the Awqaf administration, according to the a report by independent Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre, located in Amman.
A senior official the Jerusalem Waqf told the Times of Israel it currently employes 900 people.
Today, the Jerusalem Waqf controls not only the Temple Mount, but also schools, orphanages, Islamic libraries and museums, mosques, the Sharia courts and many residential and commercial properties across the city of Jerusalem.
READ MORE:
Israel & the Region Israel Inside 2017 Temple Mount shooting Temple MountMoshe Dayan Six Day War Israel-Jordan relations Al-Aqsa Mosque Waqf
499
shares
COMMENTS
FacebookTwitteremail
Ultra-Orthodox protesters demonstrating in Jerusalem against a court ruling that rejected legislation deferring mandatory conscription into the Israel Defense Forces, September 17, 2017. (Israel Police)Violent clashes as hundreds of ultra-Orthodox rally against IDF draftRAOUL WOOTLIFFAFP8 protesters arrested after clashing with police, blocking roads; video footage shows police throwing demonstrators to the ground, punching and kicking themIraqi Kurds fly an Israeli flag and Kurdish flags during an event to urge people to vote in the upcoming independence referendum in Arbil, the capital of the autonomous Kurdish region of northern Iraq, on September 16, 2017.(AFP PHOTO / SAFIN HAMED)Iraq VP opposes creating ‘second Israel’ in KurdistanMARISSA NEWMANIran warns Iraqi Kurds independence would mean end to border deals7:42 pmIran warns Iraq Kurds independence means end to border deals7:16 pmNetanyahu to directly address Iran's supreme leader in UN speech6:40 pmPolice to look into claims of brutality at Jerusalem rallyLior Ashkenazi (foreground), stars as a grieving father in Samuel Maoz's award-winning film 'Foxtrot' (Courtesy 'Foxtrot')Why Miri Regev should go see ‘Foxtrot’DAVID HOROVITZOp-ed: Samuel Maoz's award-winning film is bleak, not always fair to Israel, and marked by dissent and despair. Our culture minister would hate parts of it, but she should watch itRegev vows to revolutionize state funding for filmsTOI staffAcclaim for controversial film puts Regev in Whiskey Tango Foxtrot situationJessica SteinbergIsraeli soldiers light cigarettes while on patrol at the Anzac Memorial just outside the central Gaza Strip on April 13, 2016. (Corinna Kern/Flash90)IDF looks to quit selling cigarettes on army basesJUDAH ARI GROSSMilitary rolling out a series of measures to douse the habit, which is harming soldiers' operational capabilitiesUS Ambassador to the United Nations Nikki Haley speaks during a news briefing at the White House, in Washington, September 15, 2017. (AP/Carolyn Kaster)America’s envoy says UN ‘Israel bashing’ becoming more balancedAPTOI STAFFAmbassador Nikki Haley warns Security Council close to exhausting diplomatic options on North KoreaUS President Donald Trump walks across the tarmac after stepping off Air Force One upon arrival at Morristown Municipal Airport in Morristown, New Jersey, September 15, 2017. (AFP/MANDEL NGAN)Trump lets loose on ‘Rocket Man’ Kim, ‘Crooked Hillary’AFPIranian men burn Israeli and American flags during a demonstration against the execution of prominent Shiite Muslim cleric Nimr al-Nimr by Saudi authorities, on January 3, 2016, outside the Saudi embassy in Tehran. (AFP PHOTO / ATTA KENARE)Talking about Iran, for a changeJoshua DavidovichRabbinical Courts Administration Director Shimon Yaakovi speaking during an interview in his office in Jerusalem, July 27, 2015. (Yonatan Sindel/Flash90/via JTA)Rabbinate expanding marriage blacklists for ‘questionable’ Jewish immigrantsANDREW TOBINReport says Israel is methodically blacklisting olim of Jewish heritage, who are subsequently unable to marry in the Jewish stateRabbi Eliezer Berland covers himself with his talit (prayer shawl) at the Magistrate Court in Jerusalem, as he is put on trial for sexual assualt charges, November 17, 2016. (Yonatan Sindel/ Flash90)Convicted sex offender rabbi approved to make trip abroadTOI staffIllustrative: A gay couple with their daughter (monkeybusinessimages via iStock by Getty images)State commits to legislate adoption rights for gay couplesTOI staffShas MK Yigal Guetta (R) submits his letter of resignation from the Knesset to Speaker Yuli Edelstein (L) on September 17, 2017 (Knesset speaker's office)Shas MK resigns amid furor over his attendance at nephew’s gay weddingTOI staffHamas and Fatah leaders met in Gaza for talks on Palestinian reconciliation on April 22, 2014. (l-r) Hamas leader Moussa Abu Marzouk, Fatah official Azzam Al-Ahmed, head of the Hamas government Ismail Haniyeh, and deputy speaker of the Palestinian Parliament Ahmed Bahar (Abed Rahim Khatib/Flash90)Hamas’s sudden pragmatism is a mixed blessing for AbbasAVI ISSACHAROFFThe PA president is set to meet Trump to rally his support for two states, and will have to stall before embracing compromise with a group that has vowed to destroy IsraelHamas says it accepts Abbas’s reconciliation demandsAPTOI staffEgypt court sentences 7 to death over links to Islamic StateAP2 Hamas fighters die in separate Gaza tunnel collapsesAFPTOI staffSupporters of the ultra-nationalist Turkish Homeland Party protest outside the Israeli embassy in Ankara against what they claim are attempts to establish a "second Israel" in Iraqi Kurdistan, September 15, 2017 (screenshot: Homeland Party website)Turkish nationalists protest creation of ‘second Israel’ in KurdistanSUE SURKESIsraeli embassy in Ankara evacuated as demonstrators seek to portray upcoming Kurdish independence referendum as Zionist plotIraqi Kurds fly Kurdish flags during an event to urge people to vote in the upcoming independence referendum in Arbil, the capital of the autonomous Kurdish region of northern Iraq, on September 15, 2017. (AFP/ SAFIN HAMED)US urges Iraqi Kurdistan to call off independence voteAFPAn illustrative photo of the Sultan Ahmed Mosque or Sultan Ahmet Mosque (Blue Mosque) in Istanbul, Turkey. (iStock/Getty Images)Israeli teen reported missing in IstanbulTOI staffPolice forensics officers works next to an underground train at a platform at Parsons Green underground station in west London on September 15, 2017, following an explosion, later claimed by Islamic State, which injured 29 people. (AFP/Daniel Leal-Olivas)Second suspect arrested in connection with London tube bombAFPTOI STAFF21-year-old man arrested in west London, after 18-year-old nabbed at Dover ferry departure area on SaturdayMarseilles, France (Wikimedia Commons/CC BY SA 3.0)4 US tourists attacked with acid in MarseilleForensics officers work next to Underground train at a platform at Parsons Green station in London on September 15, 2017. (AFP Photo/Adrian Dennis)UK experts say London bomb didn’t detonate properly, could’ve left dozens deadTOI staffAFPAmbulances and police are seen at the at Parsons Green subway station in London after a bombing on the London Underground on September 15, 2017. (AP Photo/Frank Augstein)British police make ‘significant arrest’ in London train bombingAFPBurgers produced from animal cells in a laboratory. (Youtube screenshot)China makes massive investment in Israeli lab meat technologySUE SURKES$300 million deal sees Chinese partner with Israeli high-tech companies battling global warming Levi Shapiro, founder of mHealth, at the opening event in Jerusalem on September 14, 2017 (Courtesy)Startup that detects your ills by analyzing your voice wins contestTOI staffA screenshot of the Infime website, which allows users to find the best-fitting underwear and swimwear (Courtesy)How to match bikini to body, without strippingTOI staffPrime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu addresses the 71st UN general assembly debate at the UN headquarters in New York City, on September 22, 2016 (Amir Levy/FLASH90)Netanyahu gears up for meetings with Trump, world leadersRAPHAEL AHRENPM to meet leaders of Panama, Japan and Rwanda on the sidelines of the UN General Assembly, turns down Swedish request for a sit-downPrime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, left, and US President Donald Trump, right, speak at Ben Gurion International Airport prior to the latter's departure from Israel on May 23, 2017. (Koby Gideon/GPO)‘Netanyahu to present Trump with specific plan to nix or fix Iran nuke deal’TOI staffAgenciesUS President Donald Trump delivers a speech during a visit to the Israel Museum in Jerusalem on May 23, 2017. (AFP PHOTO / Menahem KAHANA)WH official: Peace conversations to be kept ‘mostly separate’ from UN meetingsEric CortellessaSweden's Prime Minister Stefan Lofven arrives for a summit on relations between the European Union and Turkey and on managing the migration crisis, on November 29, 2015 in Brussels. (Thierry Charlier/AFP)Netanyahu said to refuse meeting at UN with Swedish premierAlexander FulbrightDetail from vintage post card from The Green Park hotel in Bournemouth, England (Courtesy)‘Greatest Name in Jewish Hotels’ captured in documentary film on British JewryRENEE GHERT-ZANDWith its class and kosher food, The Green Park was the seaside vacation destination for post-war England's upwardly mobile religiously observantElie Wiesel in his office in New York, September 12, 2012 (AP Photo/Bebeto Matthews)Boston University honors Holocaust survivor Elie WieselAPAn Israel Railways train (illustrative photo: Moshe Shai/Flash90)New Karmiel-Tel Aviv train line to open, with access for Israeli Arab townsSUE SURKESIllustrative photo of an Israel Police vehicle, August 4, 2017. (Roy Alima/Flash90)7 arrested for planning mob hit on Jerusalem residentSTUART WINERIranian President Hassan Rouhani stands next to a portrait of supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei as he leaves at the end of a press conference in Tehran on June 13, 2015. (AFP Photo/Behrouz Mehri)Khamenei says Tehran won’t bow to US ‘bullying’ on nuclear dealAGENCIESTOI STAFFCommander of the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps (IRGC) Aerospace Force Brigadier General Amir Ali Hajizadeh. (Screen capture: YouTube/MEMRITVVideos)Iranian Revolutionary Guard says it has ‘father of all bombs’TOI STAFFUS National security adviser H.R. McMaster speaks during a news briefing at the White House, in Washington, Friday, September 15, 2017 (AP Photo/Carolyn Kaster)Israel, US deny McMaster chewed out Israeli officialsSUE SURKESTAMAR PILEGGIAryeh Deri seen leaving his home in Jerusalem on the way to questioning at the Lahav 433 anti-corruption unit, June 5, 2017. (Yonatan Sindel/Flash90)Police probe interior minister over zoning change – reportSUE SURKESThe IDF ambulance attacked by Druze Israeli residents in the Golan Heights as it ferried Syrian war casualties for medical treatment in Israel, June 22, 2015. (Basel Awidat/Flash90)Two Israelis convicted of attacking ambulance carrying SyriansTOI STAFFIllustrative image of a British Airways plane at London's Heathrow Airport (Panhard/Wikimedia Commons)British Airways flight evacuated in Paris after bogus threatANGELA CHARLTONUS President Donald Trump speaking on the phone in the Oval Office of the White House, June 27, 2017. (Alex Wong/Getty Images)Trump to Jewish leaders: Hopes for ‘significant progress’ soon on Mideast peaceERIC CORTELLESSAA picture taken on September 14, 2017 shows bottles of wine with pictures of Mussolini, Hitler, Lenin and Stalin at a shop in the center of Rome. (AFP PHOTO / Alberto PIZZOLI)Italian parliament floats legislation to ban fascist propagandaTOI STAFFMitchell Flint standing in front of his P51 Mustang fighter plane in Israel in 1948. (JTA/Tom Tugend)US aviator who helped form Israeli Air Force dies at 94APTOI STAFF"It's a joy to be able to use chopsticks again....or simply hold a fork, write a legible sentence, apply make-up in less than a half-hour, or just hold the paper on which my sermon is written, without it shaking wildly." --Rabbi Mintz“Start Up Nation” Creates Miracles – againEliminates Parkinson's Tremors PainlesslyTOP OPSSARAH TUTTLE-SINGERMark Zuckerberg, you have a real advantageOf all people, you are in a position to stop anti-Semitism on FacebookDOV LIPMANThe ultra-Orthodox draftMost Haredim belong in the IDF; or they insult the Torah study of those few elite scholars who should be exemptAVRAHAM SHAMA‘We must walk barefoot to the Selichot’An Iraqi Jew in New Mexico remembers midnight prayer in the ghetto DASEE BERKOWITZHow I snapped out of my mom boredomThe shofar blasts a clarion call that jolts you into being 'present' in your routineHOWARD FELDMANDoing Jewish — at shulThe shareholders of Judaism focus on the synagogue, Jewish education, kashrut -- and the earthly pressure of funding it allHARRY MARYLESWill ‘A Jewish Father’ have Jewish Grandchildren?Pulling kids out of day school to cut expenses could have a devastating long-term costLAURA WHARTONThe right to ride the bus on ShabbatThe divide between those who can get away on weekends and those who can't is a matter of social injusticeBRENDA STEIN DZALDOVMe, my daughter, and IDF HeblishWhen learning the army's lingo is a labor of loveSALLY ABRAMSElul and the shipwrecked sailorsHow a Nova Scotia ocean cliff burial site inspires one-way acts of kindnessJUDIT BACSKAIIn the desert, I can see all the starsA month after arriving in Israel, everything -- clouds, roads, barbed wire, Eilat -- is breathtakingSHLOMO RISKINWhen we return to God, we’re never aloneTurn yourself in the way you mean to go, and the Divine will help you get there (Nitzavim-Vayelech)A JEWISH FATHERA Jewish Father responds to his criticsIt seems my post about not being able to afford to live Jewishly hit a nerve…LATEST ARTICLESElie Wiesel in his office in New York, September 12, 2012 (AP Photo/Bebeto Matthews)21 MINUTES AGO Boston University honors Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel 33 MINUTES AGO Trump lets loose on ‘Rocket Man’ Kim, ‘Crooked Hillary’ 37 MINUTES AGO America’s envoy says UN ‘Israel bashing’ becoming more balanced 2 HOURS AGO Violent clashes as hundreds of ultra-Orthodox rally against IDF draft 2 HOURS AGOHoliday recipe/Prosperity chicken for your Rosh Hashanah table 2 HOURS AGO Convicted sex offender rabbi approved to make trip abroad 2 HOURS AGO 7 arrested for planning mob hit on Jerusalem resident 3 HOURS AGO 4 US tourists attacked with acid in Marseille 4 HOURS AGO China makes massive investment in Israeli lab meat technology 4 HOURS AGO Khamenei says Tehran won’t bow to US ‘bullying’ on nuclear deal 4 HOURS AGOWarning: Spoilers/Why Miri Regev should go see ‘Foxtrot’ 4 HOURS AGO New Karmiel-Tel Aviv train line to open, with access for Israeli Arab towns 5 HOURS AGO Startup that detects your ills by analyzing your voice wins contest 5 HOURS AGO Two Israelis convicted of attacking ambulance carrying Syrians 5 HOURS AGO IDF looks to quit selling cigarettes on army bases 6 HOURS AGO How to match bikini to body, without stripping 6 HOURS AGOHebrew media review/Talking about Iran, for a change 6 HOURS AGO Italian parliament floats legislation to ban fascist propaganda 6 HOURS AGO Police probe interior minister over zoning change – report 7 HOURS AGOLive updates/Iraq VP opposes creating ‘second Israel’ in Kurdistan SEE ALLLATEST BLOGSAllen S. MallerALLEN S. MALLERWisdom paths to a better New YearLauren BerkunLAUREN BERKUNMy Week as a Miami 'Refugee'Paul MirbachPAUL MIRBACHCome Home SafeYakir EnglanderYAKIR ENGLANDERHoliness, "intimate critique" and...Howard FeldmanHOWARD FELDMANThursdays with GampsKatriel ReichmanKATRIEL REICHMANHoliday stress? 3 tips for helpin...Israel DrazinISRAEL DRAZINRosh Hashanah is not a biblical h...Yifa SegalYIFA SEGALReferendum for Kurdistan: Will th...Dasee BerkowitzDASEE BERKOWITZHow the High Holidays snapped me ...Jacob MaslowJACOB MASLOWWhy the United States Should Adop...SEE ALLTerms of UsePrivacy PolicyTALES OF THE TIMESThe quirky, improbable, infuriating and upliftingPomegranate and honey glazed chicken. (Liz Rueven/via JTA)Prosperity chicken for your Rosh Hashanah tableLIZ RUEVENMark Zuckerberg with his daughter Maxima in front of the Shabbat candles, September 15, 2017. (Facebook)Mark Zuckerberg gives family heirloom kiddush cup to daughterTOI STAFFSarah Chandler leads a twist on the kapparot ritual in which participants hug chickens rather than swinging them over their heads. (Courtesy of Chandler/via JTA)Hug a chicken and 4 other twists on traditional High Holidays ritualsBEN SALESRachel McAdams attends the premier of 'Disobedience' at the 2017 Toronto International Film Festival on September 10, 2017, in Toronto, Canada. (Brian de Rivera Simon/Getty Images/AFP)Actress fails to go undercover as Orthodox Jew for ‘Disobedience’TOI STAFFMaya Serebryanaya and Valeriy Utvenko dancing at the Halom JCC in Kiev, August 2017. (Courtesy of Halom)Kiev’s new JCC celebrates marriage of elderly couple who met thereJTABenjamin Netanyahu, right, training in 1971 (Photo credit: Wikicommons/ GPO)After his own ‘trek,’ PM urges Israeli hikers to visit South AmericaTOI STAFFLebanese-French director Ziad Douieri (R) poses with actor Adel Karam at the pre-screening of "The Insult" in Beirut on September 12, 2017. (AFP PHOTO / ANWAR AMRO)‘The Insult’ takes on taboos of Lebanon’s civil warRITA EL HAGETreasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin stands in the Diplomatic Reception Room of the White House in Washington, Monday, Aug. 14, 2017, during an event for President Donald Trump to sign a memorandum calling for a trade investigation of China. (AP Photo/Alex Brandon)US Treasury chief sought Air Force jet for European honeymoonAFPIn this photo taken Saturday, July 2017, South African musician Johnny Clegg, middle, and the dancers perform during "The Final Journey" concert at the Grand Arena in Cape Town, South Africa. (AP Photo)South Africa’s Jewish Zulu Johnny Clegg begins last international tourCHRISTOPHER TORCHIAHebrew writing at the grave of the prophet Nahum, Kurdistan Region, Iraq (photo credit: Times of Israel/Lazar Berman)Turkish media claims Israel is sending Jewish Kurds back to KurdistanSUE SURKESAFPSetting the stage with Eviatar Banai at a sunset Mekudeshet concert (Jessica Steinberg/Times of Israel)Eviatar Banai plays to the sunset at the Tower of DavidJESSICA STEINBERGFormer White House press secretary Sean Spicer appears on 'Jimmy Kimmel Live' on September 13, 2017. (Screen capture: YouTube)Sean Spicer pressed (gently) on ‘Jimmy Kimmel Live’FRAZIER MOOREThe Andalusian Orchestra Ashdod hosts a free outdoor concert at the Tel Aviv port in the days in between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur (Courtesy Andalusian Orchestra)With ear to High Holidays, concert series serves up penitential hitsJESSICA STEINBERGScreen capture of the neo-Nazi website Daily Stormer, showing Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's son as the site banner, September 12, 2017.Hailing Yair Netanyahu, neo-Nazi site puts him on its bannerTOI STAFFIllustrative: Waiting for High Court justices to arrive in the courtroom. (Matti Friedman/Times of Israel)Israel’s High Court won’t hear man claiming to be ‘Messiah’TOI STAFFBuddha, a Scottish dog whose owner taught it to raise its right paw to the sound of the phrase 'Sieg heil' (YouTube screenshot)Scottish Jews say Nazi pug video stoked anti-SemitismTOI STAFFMiss North Dakota Cara Mund reacts after being named Miss America during Miss America 2018 pageant, Sunday, Sept. 10, 2017, in Atlantic City, N.J. (AP Photo/Noah K. Murray)Miss America contestants pan Trump over CharlottesvilleTOI STAFFAFPFelix Kjellberg, known by his YouTube name of PewDiePie. (Screen capture: YouTube)YouTube star PewDiePie in hot water again, over the ‘N-word’AFPIllustrative photo of a Jewish couple getting married. (Justin Oberman/Creative Commons)UK Jewish couple hold ad-lib wedding after bomb threat clears hallJOSEFIN DOLSTENA bruised Pope Francis visits the Sanctuary of St. Peter Claver, in Cartagena, Colombia, September 10, 2017. (Alessandro Di Meo/Pool via AP)Pope injures head in popemobile during Colombia processionAFP