National Death Tolls for the Second World War
This chart contains my best estimate for national death tolls during the Second World War. Click the links for sources and details.
 Axis MilitaryAllied MilitaryCiviliansEurope-North AfricaAsia-PacificTOTAL
Soviet Union 8,668,00016,900,0008,660,0008,00025.6m
China240,0001,757,0008,000,000 1,997,00010.0m
Poland 123,0006,028,000123,000 6.1m
Germany3,500,000 1,600,0003,500,000 5.1m
East Indies  4,000,000  4.0m
Japan2,566,000 672,000 2,566,0003.2m
India 49,0003,000,00042,0007,0003.0m
French Indochina  2,000,000  2.0m
Yugoslavia 305,0001,200,000305,000 1.5m
Romania350,000170,000300,000520,000 0.8m
France3,000250,000350,000250,000 0.6m
Czechoslovakia200,00046,000294,000246,000 540,000
Great Britain 403,00093,000397,0006,000496,000
Italy280,00067,00093,000347,000 440,000
Hungary136,000 294,000136,000 430,000
USA 405,0009,000309,00096,000414,000
Korea  400,000  400,000
Greece 17,000325,00017,000 342,000
Netherlands 8,000200,0008,000 208,000
Philippines 27,000100,000 27,000127,000
Belgium 9,00076,0009,000 85,000
Finland80,000 3,00080,000 83,000
Recurring Sources for WW2
AWM: Australian War Memorial Fact Sheet [​http://www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/war_casualties.asp
Britannica: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, 1992 printing. "Killed, died of wounds, or in prison .... exclud[ing] those who died of natural causes or were suicides."
Clodfelter, Michael: Warfare and Armed Conflict: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1618-1991
Davies, Norman, Europe A History (1998) same as Britannica's war dead in most cases.
Eckhardt, William: a 3-page table of his war statistics printed in World Military and Social Expenditures 1987-88 (12th ed., 1987) by Ruth Leger Sivard. "Deaths", including "massacres, political violence, and famines associated with the conflicts."
Ellis John, World War II : a statistical survey (Facts on File, 1993) "killed and missing" unless otherwise noted.
Gruhl, Werner, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931-1945
The Guardian [London] 30 Apr. 1994 (wires 2 May 94), citing J. Erickson and Helmut Trotnow
Harper Collins Atlas of the Second World War, John Keegan, ed., (1997)
US Holocaust Memorial Museum, Historical Atlas of the Holocaust (1995)
Hochschild, Adam, The Unquiet Ghost: Russians Remember Stalin (Penguin, 1994)
Information Please Almanac (1991 edition): "battle deaths" unless otherwise noted.
Johnson, Paul, Modern Times
Keegan, John, The Second World War (1989)
Kinder, The Anchor Atlas of World History (1978)
Large, Stephen S., Showa Japan: 1941-1952
Messenger, Charles, The Chronological Atlas of World War Two (Macmillan, 1989)
Mazower, Mark, Dark Continent: Europe's Twentieth Century (1998)
Paterson, Thomas G., On Every Front: The Making and Unmaking of the Cold War, p 11, (1992)
Shabad, Steven, World Press Review v42n7 (Jul 1995)
Small, Melvin & Singer, Joel David, Resort to Arms : International and Civil Wars 1816-1965 (1982): battle deaths.
Haruo Tohmatsu, H. P. Willmott, A Gathering Darkness: The Coming of War to the Far East and the Pacific, p.144
Urlanis, Boris, Wars and Population (1971)
Wallechinsky, David, Twentieth Century / History With the Boring Parts Left Out (1995)
Appendix A: Battle Deaths in Major WW2 Campaigns
(Includes missing, but not POWs. According to John Ellis, World War II : a statistical survey (Facts on File, 1993) unless otherwise noted.)
Major Battles of WW2:
Appendix B: Holocaust Deaths by Nation
Total Jews killed from within pre-war borders.
to Table of Contents
Last updated Feb. 2005
Copyright © 1999-2005 Matthew White
General IntroductionAlphabetical IndexAtrocities during World War IIBy Campaign and BattleTotalSources