McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom (1988)
Civilian deaths: 50,000 (p.619)
One Kind of Freedom: The Economic Consequences of Emancipation by Roger Ransom, Richard Sutch, p.53-54 (2001)
- General Howard, Freedmen's Bureau, estimated that 25% of African-Am. lost their lives by the war.
- Instead, Ransom/Sutch estimate that 1.6% of African-Am. died as a direct result of the war. [based on the 3.5M blacks in the CSA, this would come to around 56,000 civilian deaths. Howard's est. would be 875,000 d.]
James Alan Marten, Civil War America: Voices from the Home Front (2007) p. 213
"Out of the 4000 black refugees living in Helena, Arkansas, in 1863–1864, about 1100 died. In Memphis, 1200 out of the 4000 contrabands died in only three months, while the camp at Natchez—also holding 4000 refugees—suffered a nearly 50 percent mortality rate in 1863."
James Downs, Sick from Freedom: African-American Illness and Suffering during the Civil War and Reconstruction (2012): Including deaths by disease among newly freed slaves would boost overall death toll of war to over a million. 50,000 former slaves, probably more, died in smallpox epidemic. [http://blog.oup.com/2012/04/black-white-demographic-death-toll-civil-war]