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Yemen Issue and Solution Alternatives
Conference Paper (PDF Available) · November 2015 with 853 Reads
Conference: Security Issues Seminars, At Muscat
Eman Al Sawaafi
Sultan Qaboos University
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Security Seminars
Yemen Issue and Solution Alternatives
Eman Saeed Al Sawafi
International Relations and Security Studies Program
Security studies: Theory & Practice
1 December 2015, Muscat
Table of Contents
Introduction...........................................................................................................................................1
I.Historical Background .................................................................................................................. 2
A.Islands in Yemen
...................................................................................................................
2
B.
Bab al-Mandab Strait................................................................................................................ 2
C.
British Occupation in the South Yemen
....................................................................................
3
D.
Zaidi Imams and Civil Wars in the North of Yemen................................................................ 4
E.
Unity of Yemen......................................................................................................................... 4
F.
Foreign Relation of Yemen
.......................................................................................................
5
G.
Yemen and UN Security Council............................................................................................
5
II.Current Situation ........................................................................................................................... 6
A.
Houthis Movement.................................................................................................................... 6
B.
US Interest​................................................................................................................................. 7
C.
Non-government Organizations in Yemen............................................................................... 7
III.Futuristic Expectations and Solution Alternat​ives ........................................................................ 8
A.
Religion Solutions
.....................................................................................................................8
B.
Economic Solutions.................................................................................................................. 8
1.Industrial Investments ................................................................................................................ 9
2.Tourism Solutions .................................................................................................................... 11
3.Trade in Yemen........................................................................................................................11
4.Services .................................................................................................................................... 12
Conclusion ..........................................................................................................................................12
References ...............................................................................................................................................
1
Introduction
Yemen name was considered in many historical and geographic books. Its name had
been derived from the welfare, gladness and grace. Some Arabs said that Yemen because it
is located in the right of the Holy Kaaba. Others mentioned that name of Yemen is from
Yumn which means optimist of anything. It is considered as the main entrance of the
Arabian Peninsula.
1
It is located in the southern west of the Asia continent. Saudi Arabia is
in the north of Yemen, Sultanate of Oman from east, and The Red Sea from the west and
Aden Gulf from the south. Yemen has lots of islands and the biggest one is Socotra Island
which has lots of attractive and strange creatures. The capital of the Republic of Yemen is
Sanaa. The main ports in Yemen is Aden, Makha, Al Hadidah, and Al Mukala.
Situation in Yemen is very complex from long time. From the past, the regime was
Imamate in Yemen which means they were closely to follow Islam instructions. But
unfortunately, there were many irredentism around Yemen which shifted the regime of
Imamate. There were not only civil wars but now seems to be a proxy war. Many countries
are in the center of the Yemeni war. Especially now the Coalitions countries leading by
Saudi Arabia might escalating the problems. That’s because the power countries might bring
a change in the world because of Yemeni war.
All these conflicts started in Yemen with some reasons like injustice between people
especially between the north and south Yemen. Security seems to be never exist in Yemen
in coming years. The main things with humanity to come together is peace. If they is no
peace, so conflicts will happen bringing the hunger, victims, injustice, and collapse in the
country at all. The peace comes from the wealth and richness. If we consider Yemen, it has
lost of natural resources like minerals, many attractive islands like Socotra, Perim and other
islands like Kamran. Not only attractive, but they have a very important location in the
entrance of the Red Sea and Bab Al Mandab. Yemen also was wealth from ancient
civilizations like Saba, Hadramawt and others. Adding to that, Quran is mentioning this
country and describe as kind country and kind people. Therefore, the basic thing is in hand
of Yemen but it needs some arrangements. If Yemen will not exploit this current time in
solving the problem correctly and efficiency, Yemen will collapse soon. Now it has Huthis,
Al Qaeda which are the main dangerous movements around the world.
There are some economic, religion and industrial solutions in this research which
might help Yemen to develop and stand up again. The best thing in Yemen that Yemeni
people notes that they are in danger in the 2011 events and they started demanding to their
needs. This action is very optimistic which seems they will start the progress to develop.
IArabian Peninsula is located in the Western Asia and is basically known as Arabia.
2
I.Historical Background
The history of Yemen was complex and one of the contrast from long time. The north was
home to a right-wing republic whereas the south was a Marxist state. Yemen old history was
famous of having lost of strong civilizations like kingdom of Sheba, kingdom of
Hadramawt, kingdom of Qataban, kingdom of Moeen and kingdom of Himyarite. They were
considered as the oldest centers of civilization in the Near East. Yemen that time was one of
the best places in the world. On the other hand, it was the main target to lots of foreign and
neighbors' irredentism. At the end of 1970s British occupation over the Middle East
including Yemen. In 1799, Breim Island was targeted by Britain and the port of Aden in
1839. Both of them have a very strategic location in the entrance of the Red Sea. Then later
Ottomans took Sanaa in 1872 which ended shortly after the World War I because of its
collapse. These empires had affected on the modern history of Yemen.
A.Islands in Yemen
Quran has mentioned Yemen in some occasions like Saba kingdom and the queen Balqees.
This gives Yemen superiority and glory. Long time ago, Yemen was one of the peaceful
countries in the world. It was known as the kindest country and peaceful people living in a
wealth place. About 200 islands were existed in Yemen. They were related to the
civilizations in Yemen. The biggest island was Socotra Island. It has a strange creatures
which could attract lots of tourists. Therefore, it had been elected to be shown in the
UNESCO's World Heritage.
2
For these reason, it could help to help to raise up its economy
that time and make international relations around the world. Another island called Perim
which is related to the Bab Al Mandab administration. It has a very important and strategic
location in the entrance of Bab Al Mandab. It gives a strong geopolitical power for Yemen
around the world.
Socotra, Perim and the other islands like Kamran the pearl of the Red Sea- developed and
strengthened the political relations of Yemen internationally. That’s because Yemen is the
path for whole three continents Asia, Africa and Europe. Once they sailed through Arabian
Sea, Aden Gulf or the Red Sea, they stopped in Yemen in Aden Port.
B.Bab al-Mandab Strait
Bab al-Mandab strait is located in a strategic southern entrance to the Red Sea and the
gateway to the Suez Canal. It is between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and
2
Richard M. "Socotra is among UNESCO's World Heritage List", United Press International, vol. 138, 2008,
P14
3
Eritrea in the Horn of Africa. Saudi Arabia realize the danger of Houthis' existence in
Yemen especially their move to the western part of Bab Al Mandab Strait. Houthis have
reached the western port of Hodeidah on 15 October and began increasing its presence in
Taiz province bordering the strait.
3
All these actions have threaten KSA and Yemen
government for the coming future. They realize that controlling Bab al Mandab Strait which
is the major route for oil from the Gulf means controlling the whole Arabian Peninsula and
the Horn of Africa. Therefore, Prime Minister Khaled Bahah has visited Bab Al Mandab and
ordered to launch to attack the Houthis who still controlling the strait for several months.
C.British Occupation in the South Yemen
Aden was considered as an important point for many foreign forces which have
commercial and navigational interests. It is located on the Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea
coast. From long time it was known as the eye of the Yemen. That’s because it is the
economic capital of Yemen that time. If eye is injured, it means that half body will be
effected if it's not whole. Therefore, Aden is the power in Yemen to raise Yemen up or leave
it down. British irredentism to port of Aden was increasing dramatically. This way is the
easiest way for the transport of the British Empire in the east. Britain conquered Breim
Island in 1799 and following by Aden 1839 after strong resistance from the citizens. As a
result, Britain was known as the power in that time. It could expand its influence to other
parts in Yemen when the Zaidi people were busy in war with the Ottoman Empire. Here,
Britain expanded its colonial influence to the western coast of Yemen. By 1915 all eastern
and western provinces were under British influence. They were –​including Aden- presided
by the British viceroy in India. In the eastern provinces, they were Sultanate of Al Qaeeti, Al
Katheri, Al Mahd, Qashan, Soqatra, Mashiaqit Bit ali and Mashiaqit Horah Al Sofla. On the
other hand, the western provinces were the Sultanate of Lahj, Sabihah, Aqarib, Al
Hawashib, Al Awaleq Al Olia, Awaliq Sofla, Emirate Al Dhalea and Emirate of Bihan. Six
of these Sultanates joined together in one union in 1958 by support of Britain. Then later on,
Sultanate of Lahj joined with other Emirates and Sultanates establishing federal and political
formation. They called this formation the federation of south Arabia. By 1968 Britain
decided to retreat from south Yemen. This retreation of British occupation did leave Yemeni
forces competing between each other until the two fronts in Yemen appeared, Front of
National Liberation led by Qahtan Al Shaabi and Front of South Yemen Liberation led by
Abd Al Qawi Makawi. After that, the Southern Yemenis announced the People's Democratic
Republic of Yemen in the South which means South Yemen independence.
4
3Peter S. "Houthi Expansion threatens Yemen's strategic Bab al-Mandab Strait". Financial Times: vol. 138,
2008, P 1-18
4
Ibid, P 12
4
D.Zaidi Imams and Civil Wars in the North of Yemen
In the north of Yemen, the regime was Imamate. There were civil wars in the period of
Imam Mohammed Yahiya. He send a request for help and support from the king of Aseer
Aedh bin Maree. King Aedh bin Maree respond to Imam Mohammed Yahiya and send for
him a military forces which helped the Imam to return back the power and control over
Saana. The condition of king Aedh bin Maree was that Saana will be under his sovereignty.
It means that north Yemen will be under Saudi Arabia control. This relation between North
Yemen and Saudi Arabia didn’t continued in a peaceful way as before. Therefore, Aedh bin
Maree send military troops led by Husain Mohammed to Saana to punish Imam Mohammed
Yahiya. In this time, Ottoman took the chance to occupy Al Hadidia and part of Tuhama in
1849. Another military troops sent by Ottoman in 1868 to punish the Yemeni rebels.
Fortunately, Yemeni rebels could protects their locations from Ottoman occupation. The
Wali of Ottoman asked for an agreement from the Imam of North Yemen that time, Yahiya
Humaid A' Dean.
Imam Yahiya Humid A' Dean was the known as Al Mutwakil for Allah. Ottoman didn’t
consider him as a leader in Yemen. Therefore, Imam Yahiya announced a war against
Ottoman which ended with Ottoman's admission for Sheik Yahiya's imamate in 1911. He
has the policy of isolation especially because that time the Al Arabia Peninsula had lots of
conflicts. He was known as a sincere, educated, patient person. Unfortunately eventhough he
was a great person that time, but he was having some of opponents. In 1925, some tribes in
Yemen rebelled against Imam Yahiya because they didn’t accept the policy Imamate in
Yemen. This rebellion was putted down by a strong force led by Abdullah bin Ahmad Al
Wazeer. Another rebellion movement against Imam Yahiya had done by Al Zaraneeq tribe
in 1929. This movement continued for two years and then been eliminated by force by Imam
Ahmed Yahiya Humaid. In 1940 a third rebellion movement was against Imam Yahiya led
by Mohammed A' Dabagh in Al Bidhaa and the last one was in 1948. Imam Yahiya had
been overthrow in this year. On the other hand, his son Imam Ahmed Yahiya didn’t allow
these movement to take the power and he could eliminate them all and get the Imamate and
power over Yemen. North Yemen got independence that time.
5
E.Unity of Yemen
In 1990 Ali Abdullah Saleh became the president of the whole Yemen who was only
controlling the north Yemen before this year. Mr. Ali Salim Al Bidh became the vice
president of the whole Yemen. About 4 years, this unity was continuing hardly. After the
four years, the conflict started escalating. There were many obstacles behind this conflicts.
One of the obstacles was injustice between the halves. South Yemen was considered as the
poor people who have no authority to do anything. Therefore, Yemen didn’t develop like
other countries. It has poverty, injustice and deeping inequality. As Paul said in his book
security studies: "this routine insecurity occurs in the context of global and national political
5
Richard, ibid, P 20
5
and economic systems which many believe perpetuate not only poverty but also deeping
inequality".
6
Actually the reason behind this poor country and behind the Yemenis from the south
started complaining from the unfair situation between them and the north people. This
leaded to lots of civil wars which seemed to be unsolved. Some Arab countries tried to solve
these problems between the two halves but they didn’t worth. Therefore, League of Arab
States was working as a mediator between them but it didn’t solve the problem. Then Ali
Abdullah Saleh president of Yemen and his vice president Ali Salim Al Baidh were invited
to sign an agreement and a contract in Gordon –​Amman-. Unfortunately, the conflict
became escalated and more dangerous in Yemen and the south Yemen announced its
independence from the north Yemen. At this time, UN Security Council declared to stop the
war immediately in 1994. They sent a committee to search on the problems which escalating
the conflict in Yemen. They imposed a blockade on the arms suppliers to these two
conflicting parties. Unfortunately, this war ended with the south defeat which was leading
by Ali Salim Al Biydh. Ali Abdullah Saleh took the power over the whole Yemen and the
capital was still Saana. Unfortunately, he gained the new presidency in 1997.
7
F.Foreign Relations of Yemen
Yemen participated with other Arab countries to find a solution on Palestinian issue at
Cairo Conference in 1939 and at Bludan in Syria in 1946. Yemen also has discussed with
their Arab neighbors about the Arabian Union. As a result of this discussion, League of Arab
States was established in 1945 and Yemen became a member of it. Later on, Yemen joined
United Nation after WWII in 1947. By 1958, Yemen entered into a federation with Egypt
which was as the United Arab Republic at the time.
8
During the 19th C, many incidents had been occurred with Yemen which weakened its
foreign relations:
G.Yemen and UN Security Council
In 1990, Yemen was a fresh temporary member in the United Nation Security Council.
Surprisingly, it was against using military forces in Iraq. It was a shock to US and to some
other countries that Yemen was not in the side of US. It was as a shock because that time US
and some Gulf Countries was supporting Yemen finically. The Yemeni ambassador in UN
was receiving some react from US. A member of the U.S. delegation candidly told him that
Yemen vote was the most expensive vote ever cast. That was the start of the breaking
relations with some countries like US and some Gulf countries. Later on, Yemen had lost
$70 million foreign aid program from Washington. Saudi Arabia abandoned its ancient
6
Paul, ibid, P 300
7
Richard, ibid, P 22
8
Paul, ibid, P 300
6
treaty with Yemen. This treaty was allowing Yemeni nationals preferential treatment as
immigrant workers. Unfortunately, Yemeni relations with those countries remained frozen
until the end of 1990s.
9
II.Current Situation
A.Houthis Movement
Houthis are recently know and make the chaos in Yemen. What are their purpose and
what they really need? Is it political, economic or social? The question is they are from the
north and the injustice is from the south not from them? So what are they claiming about?
The Houthis movement are a political movement located in the north of Yemen in Sa’da
governorate. Very recently, they were migrating in south places in Yemen​.They adhere to
the Zaydi branch of Shia Islam. Houthis group have a strategy to control the whole Yemen
not just the northern part. The Houthis are considered as an extension of Shia Iranian
influence in the region. In fact, Iran confirmed that they are supporting Yemen by sending
shipments of food, medicine and other urgent needs. They are not providing Houthis neither
weapons nor trainings. In fact, I see that Saudi Arabia is backing up Yemen in its war
against Houthis for four reasons. First, Saudi Arabia realizes that Iran becomes powerful
especially with the nuclear agreement. Therefore, Saudi Arabia needs to show to the world
its powerful military, confidence and its hegemon in the region by entering Yemen and
fighting against Houthis. Unfortunately, they do not consider the huge number of deaths
including citizen, children and women, not only Houthi people. According to UN findings
Coalition Forces leading by Saudi Arabia in 'Packets Storm' has killed about 2,355 civilians
in fighting in Yemen since March. Second reason, KSA wants to make instability and chaos
in Yemen, contrary what is showing in media. They see that Yemen's unity is dangerous for
KSA because of its rich sources and strategic location. . Thirdly, KSA’s border is within
Yemen's border especially Sa'da governorate which Houthis exist in. Therefore, they are
afraid of their borders and want to avoid Houthis' approaching them. The last reason is their
Irredentism toward Yemen resources especially oil, islands and Bab al Mandab Strait. They
want to control Yemen –​themselves- not other countries. They feels that they are the closest
neighbor of Yemen, so they have the full right to get benefits behind that. I notice that Saudi
Arabia don’t want to divide Yemen if they gain these four needs.
10
On the other hand, Saudi Arabia might gain threats behind their Irredentism in Yemen. I
see that KSA prefer to see Yemen not been unified. If Yemen been an integrated and stable
nation, KSA will not exist. But that will bring a threat from Iran regional power- which is
9
William L." A Costly Vote? Yemen Paid a High Price For 1990 Security Council Veto". Middle East Affairs:
vol. 120, 201, P 22-23
10
Richard, ibid, P 23-24
7
still looking to control Bab al Mandab with Hurmuz strait. The threats from jihadists and
Iran has been discussed in the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) summit in Riyadh. It
brought together the leaders of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United
Arab Emirates amid the increasing concern regarding the trouble situation in Yemen.
President of France, Hollande was the first who attend the GCC summits and supports Saudi
Arabia. Both Pres. Hollande and King Salman have indicated that any major agreement
between Iran and major powers must remain the stability in the region. It must not
destabilize the region further. They emphasis on the threat coming from Iran which
supposed to stop looking to control the Gulf. But is Iran the only threat for Saudi Arabia?
B.US Interest
Long time US and Saudi Arabia have strong bilateral cooperation. For example, they were
allies in the 1991 Gulf War. Their relation is mutual and it is established on the foundation
of military, political, and commercial understandings. But US has another hidden purpose
toward being in Saudi Arabia's side. Hasni Abidi is one director of the Study and Research
Centre for the Arab and Mediterranean World (CERMAM) in Geneva. He focuses on US
control on the Middle East. He says that US has a wide influence in the Middle East.
Actually, dividing Yemen is not the first aim for US. The main US strategy is to control and
divide Saudi Arabia. Yemen war is the first step for dividing Saudi Arabia. They showed to
Saudi Arabia that US provides intelligence and logistics support to them in its bombing
campaign against Yemen. But they are aiming to divide them later. The second aim for US
is controlling Bab Am Mandab, the Gulf of Aden and Socotra Island. US also know that
missiles in Yemen could hit any ship in either Bab Al Mandab or the Gulf of Aden. This is
very important for US and for Israel as well. Therefore, they have to show their support to
Yemeni and Saudi government.
C.Non-government Organizations in Yemen
NGO is an international non-profit organization aims to help the poorest country
around the world. Yemen government needs these kinds of organizations to contribute in the
process of the socio-economic development in Yemen. The statistic in 2010 showed that the
total of non-government organizations reach about 48 organizations. Most of these
organizations are foreign. They are volunteer to take care of health, education, motherhood
and childhood, refugees, water, poverty, security, food, agriculture, support for the disabled
and medical camps.
11
In fact, these organizations have another purpose behind that helping poor people.
They are looking for obtaining ordinary people and teach them whatever they want. They
start from down level by helping them with the basic thing to live. They know that those
poor people are easy to be convinced once they get their need. In 2006, the U.S. Department
11
Sawafi, ibid, P 1-5
8
of Agriculture has supported Yemen by providing 30,000 metric tons of soybean meal that
were sold for approximately $7.5 million to finance program. Adding to that, they have
implemented programs in priority areas such as counterterrorism finance and early
marriage.
12
III.Futuristic Expectations and Solution Alternatives
A.Religion Solutions
Yemeni people is known from ancient time that they have kindness and support between
each other. Unless the foreign intervention had separated them into groups. To solve the
problem in Yemen, I see that having a mediator from non Shuni nor Sheai is one of the
solution like Mufti of Sultanate of Oman or Al Jeria. Both of them are not bias to one side
and they are neither Shi nor Shni, they are Abadhi. They are looking for peace and gathered
relations between Yemenis. Yemenis have kindness and struggling for help. I see that is
because they have a strong belief in Islam. Once Islam will be well understood to any one,
people will forgive more. The basic of the Islam is forgiveness and loving each other.
Yemeni could have a coherent society if they have a strong control above them which
control all biased actions. Close and real example on that, Omani people –​Yemeni
neighbors- had those people who want to separate Sultanate of Oman into religious parts but
because the strong control of his majesty Sultan Qaboos, they are captured to avoid any
changes immediately. Nowadays, Omani people cope the policy of his majesty to their own
lives. They are trying their best to stay coherent eventhough they have three religious types
of Islam: Abadhi, Shuni, and Sheai.
But why are the fragility inside Yemen from long time?
B.Economic Solutions
There is a correlation in any country between industry, trade, services and tourism. If any
one of them has the capacity to develop, it will help others to develop, too. For example, if
the industries will flourished in Yemen that will increase the no of employment and the trade
with other countries will increase. I see that there are some industries in Yemen have been
noticed in the last years.
12
Paul, ibid, P 295-297
9
Diagram 1: Connection Among Econo​mic activities
1.Industrial Investments
Industrial sector is the leader of all economical activities in any country. Meaning that if
there is a real development in the industry sector, hence the development will occur in other
sectors. For example, agriculture sector will have the inevitable result of development if
there is a flourish in the industry sector. The production will increase with quality when
using a developed technology in farms and factories. Japan and China are a clear example of
developed industrial countries which don’t have natural resources. Here, Yemen is a very
poor country and the current situation is escalating the problem. So is the industry in Yemen
going to be developed?!
Building a complete and efficient industrial zone in Yemen is the start of increasing the
numbers of industrial investments. I see that Al Hadidia, Ta'izz and Aden are good examples
for establishing industrial zone. According to below map, all these three regions belong to
Houthis in current time. Having a balance deal between both halves might solve the
situation. Industrial zone requires to build a complete set in that place. Meaning that these
regions should have railways, airport, port, buildings, schools and hospitals. They can get
support from IMF (International Monetary Fund) or from Arabian countries especially from
coalition countries.
Developing services:
Education, health, insurance,
tourism, banking. (job
opportunities)
Industrial investments
Tourism
Trade
10
Diagram 2: Yemen Map today
13
Yemen has some industries which has not been exploited very well. According to OEC in
Yemen in 2013, Crude Petroleum has been known as the top export reaching about
($4.03B). There were some others exports like Petroleum Gas ($2.81B), Refined Petroleum
($666M), Coal Tar Oil ($642M) and Non-fillet Fresh Fish ($231M), using the 1992 revision
of the HS (Harmonized System) classification.
14
These such export might be used in the
industrial zone. Adding to that, Yemen has lots of mineral resources in different places.
Yemen from long time used to export different types of fruits and vegetables like crops,
oranges, lemons, peaches, apricots, bananas, apples, pears, figs, grapes and many others.
Also it has Wheat, barley, millet, corn lentils, cotton and Qat. Adding to that Yemen is rich
with Gold, iron, lead, copper, sulfur, salt and coal. The basic is with Yemen but if they
rebuild their country again. They can get support from Gulf countries or from IMF which
will not cost lots because the agriculture sector is the cheap sector to be provided.
Additionally, Yemeni people used to work in this sector in the past because of the water
plenty.
13
Orkaby A. "A road map to Chaos in Yemen. Dow Jones & Company​".Middle East Affairs: vol. 120,2010, P
30-31
14
Orkaby ,Ibid, P 40
11
2.Tourism Solutions
Terrorism in Yemen is affecting on lots of socio-economic activities including tourism. It
result to lose millions of tourists to Yemen's attractive location. Visionary leadership,
political stability, security and infrastructure are the main requirement for tourism growing
in Yemen. To achieve them is not that difficult because there was a successful example of
Malaysia on 1957 after British colonial rule. Malaysia was considered as one of the least
developed countries at that time.
15
But they could achieve a successful strategy which
inspired and guided a long- term strategy. As mentioned before, education is very important
and it is related to tourism for example, research and development. If there is educated
people, they will bring some ideas and done some researches for Yemen development. As a
result, this will attract millions of tourists to Yemen.
Currently, Yemen can achieve a very great credit behind the coalition against Houthis. Saudi
Arabia is the leader of this coalition and it is one of the closest neighbor to Yemen. With
these two supports, Yemen can exploit this situation and do a contract with Saudi Arabia to
gather all the ancient civilizations like Saba and Maarib and put them in museum Al Madina
Al Monawrah. This museum will be flourished in Saudi Arabia especially during pilgrim
and Umrah. The revenue will be divided for both countries. It is the start for growing
tourism in Yemen. It is very difficult to have this museum in Yemen in current situation
until the war got finished.
3.Trade in Yemen
Yemen is the seventh least developed countries to join the multilateral trading system
since the founding of the World Trade Organization in 1995. It was considered as one of the
least developed countries. Yemen joined in this organization in 2014. This membership
means that attracting foreign inward investments in Yemen. In current situation with
Yemen, Yemen might get benefit from technical assistance and capacity building of the
General Secretariat of the World Trade Organization to support the implementation of
joining and the rules of trade negotiations and the development of skills obligations trade-
related infrastructure needed to take advantage of its membership in the World Trade
Organization.
Since Yemen used to export some products especially to china, it can have a deal with
china for exchange some products until the situation will be solved. A research on the
Yemen export has shown that china is the most country get benefit from Yemen. Therefore
Yemen can flourish itself from this point.
15
Fattah K. Tourism in the Age of Terrorism: Malaysian ideasto Yemen. Yemen Times: 2009.P 1-3
12
4.Services
Human rights for Yemen now is down because they have to protect the country right now.
If there will be stability in the country, so therefore it will increase the human rights. Hence
all services like education, health, insurance, banking and tourism will raise up. Currently,
everyone need a peace, they don’t need to search for a higher po​sition or more grade. I see
that government can change the education method or even update it and mention a related
relation between two halves. It should show that they are brothers and sisters and work
together to develop the great Yemen. If they work together, they can get up. But if the still
fighting, they are attracting other countries and giving them the chance to occupy their
country.
Conclusion
From ancient time, Yemen was exclusively Semitic country. The name of Yemen is in the
Holly Quran which give everyone a great optimistic thoughts. Yemen from its name means
the Yumn which is the bless and wealth. Yemeni people are very kind and helpful. The
conflict in Yemen now because they supported the 2011 events and they show that they are
jealous to their country and they don’t want any foreign interfere.
Many civilizations had been known in Yemen like the kingdom of Sheba, kingdom of
Hadramawt, kingdom of Qataban, kingdom of Moeen and Himyarite kingdom. All these
four kingdoms had made Yemen being the oldest centers of civilization in the Near East.
Therefore, lots of irredentism have focus on this country because of its wealth of petrol,
natural resources, civilizations and the strategic location in the map. It is the key of thethree
continents: Asia, Africa and Europe.
Better for Yemen to find a man like Imam Yahiya Humid A' Dean who was a very wise
person and they have to learn from his policy. Being neutral and not fight with any side is
the best way to protect their country. Another example, is Sultanate of Oman policy. It is
consider all countries as friends but with caution.
Poverty in Yemen is the main reason of the current situation. If Yemen is rich, it
means most sectors have self-sufficiency. No one need to fight others if he has the life
necessities. Therefore, poverty eradication leads to security stability which brings
investments expansion and provides job opportunities. Then they can investment other
sectors like tourism for example. Terrorism effect on lots of socio-economic activities. To
flourish the tourism in Yemen, it should has a long term strategy which is controlled by wise
experts like Malaysia experience.
All in all, it seems that Yemen War has been prepared long time ago. Both sides could
reach a quick solution especially when Sultanate of Oman was trying to be as a mediator
13
between them. But they didn’t accept that because Oman didn’t join to Arab coalition
against Houthis. It seems that both Saudi Arabia and Iran consider themselves as the leader
of Islamic World. If they lose the status, it means that they will lose the legitimacy.
Therefore, Yemen becomes the battlefield of Iran, Saudi Arabia and US especially after
nuclear agreement. All media, propaganda, non-government organizations are very basic
tool to win the war. Unfortunately, media now is one-sided not presenting the correct image
of Yemen War. It is suggest​ed that better for Saudi Arabia to accept the agreement with
Houthi. And not depend on US totally, because my friend today is my enemy tomorrow.
References
BOOK
Williams Paul. Security Studies An Introduction. Routledge. New York. 2013
ARTICLES
Asher, O. "A Road Map to Chaos in Yemen. Business, Economics-Banking and Finance".
Middle East Policy Council, Vol. 185, 2015: 1-16
Khaled, F. "Tourism in the Age of Terrorism: Malaysian ideas to Yemen". Yemen Times,
vol. 3.1, 2009: 1-3
Lan, W. "A Costly Vote? Yemen Paid a High Price For 1990 Security Council Veto".
Middle East Affairs, Vol. 130, 2010: 22-23
Cochrane, R. "US naval presence likely to deter escalationbetweenEgyptian,Saudi,and
Iranian navies from blocking Bab al-Mandab strait". Middle East Affairs, vol. 138, 2015: 1-
7
Salisbury Peter, "Houthi expansion threatens Yemen's strategic Bab al-Mandab
strait". Financial Times, vol. 120, 2014: 1-2
Critical security studies: An introduction
Article
Jan 2010
C. Peoples
View
A Road Map to Chaos in Yemen. Business, Economics-Banking and Finance
1-16
O Asher
Asher, O. "A Road Map to Chaos in Yemen. Business, Economics-Banking and Finance". Middle East Policy Council, Vol. 185, 2015: 1-16
Tourism in the Age of Terrorism: Malaysian ideas to Yemen
Jan 20091-3
F Khaled
Khaled, F. "Tourism in the Age of Terrorism: Malaysian ideas to Yemen". Yemen Times, vol. 3.1, 2009: 1-3
A Costly Vote? Yemen Paid a High Price For 1990 Security Council Veto
W Lan
Lan, W. "A Costly Vote? Yemen Paid a High Price For 1990 Security Council Veto".
US naval presence likely to deter escalation between Egyptian, Saudi, and Iranian navies from blocking Bab al-Mandab strait
1-7
R Cochrane
Cochrane, R. "US naval presence likely to deter escalation between Egyptian, Saudi, and Iranian navies from blocking Bab al-Mandab strait". Middle East Affairs, vol. 138, 2015: 1- 7
Houthi expansion threatens Yemen's strategic Bab al-Mandab strait
1-2
Salisbury Peter
Salisbury Peter, "Houthi expansion threatens Yemen's strategic Bab al-Mandab strait". Financial Times, vol. 120, 2014: 1-2
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