130 captures
1 May 2011 - 20 Oct 2021
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Minor Atrocities of the Twentieth Century
Alphabetical Index
Site Index
List of Recurring Sources:
AWM: Australian War Memorial Fact Sheet [http://www.awm.gov.au/encyclopedia/war_casualties.asp]
"B&J": Jacob Bercovitch and Richard Jackson, International Conflict : A Chronological Encyclopedia of Conflicts and Their Management 1945-1995 (1997)
Bodart, Gaston, Losses of Life in Modern Wars (1916)
Britannica, 15th edition, 1992 printing
Brzezinski, Zbigniew, Out of Control: Global Turmoil on the Eve of the Twenty-first Century (1993).
The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Africa (1981)
The Cambridge History of Africa (1986), ed. J. D. Fage and R. Oliver
CDI:  The Center for Defense Information, The Defense Monitor, "The World At War: January 1, 1998".
Chirot, Daniel: Modern Tyrants : the power and prevalence of evil in our age (1994)
Chomsky, Noam,  The Chomsky Reader (1987); Deterring Democracy (1991)
Clodfelter, Michael, Warfare and Armed Conflict: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1618-1991
Compton's Encyclopedia Online v.2.0 (1997)
COWP: Correlates of War Project at the University of Michigan [http://www.correlatesofwar.org/]
Courtois, Stephane, The Black Book of Communism, 1997
Davies, Norman, Europe A History (1998)
Dictionary of Twentieth Century World History, by Jan Palmowski (Oxford, 1997)
Dictionary of Wars, by George Childs Kohn (Facts on File, 1999)
DoD: United States Department of Defense [http://web1.whs.osd.mil/mmid/m01/SMS223R.HTM]
Dumas, Samuel, and K.O. Vedel-Petersen, Losses of Life Caused By War (1923)
Dunnigan, A Quick and Dirty Guide to War (1991)
Eckhardt, William, in World Military and Social Expenditures 1987-88 (12th ed., 1987) by Ruth Leger Sivard.
Edgerton, Robert B, Africa's armies: from honor to infamy: a history from 1791 to the present (2002)
Encarta, Microsoft Encarta '95.
FAS 2000: Federation of American Scientists, The World at War (2000)
Gibbon, Edward, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
Gilbert, Martin, A History of the Twentieth Century (1997)
Global Security: The World At War [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/index.html]
Grenville, J. A. S., A History of the World in the Twentieth Century (1994)
Hammond Atlas of the 20th Century (1996)
Harff, Barbara & Gurr, Ted Robert: "Toward an Empirical Theory of Genocides and Politicides", 32 International Studies Quarterly 359 (1988).
Hartman, T., A World Atlas of Military History 1945-1984 (1984)
Henige, David, Numbers From Nowhere, (1998)
Johnson, Paul, Modern Times (1983); A History of the Jews (1987)
Kuper, Leo, Genocide: its political uses in the Twentieth Century (1981)
Levy, Jack, War in the Modern Great Power System (1983)
Marley, David, Wars of the Americas (1998)
Obermeyer, Ziad. "Fifty Years of Violent War Deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia." British Medical Journal (2008)
Our Times: The Illustrated History of the 20th Century (Turner Publishing 1995)
"PGtH": Stuart and Doris Flexner, The Pessimist's Guide to History (1992, updated 2000)
"Ploughshares": Project Ploughshares, Armed Conflicts Report 2000
Porter, Jack Nusan, Genocide and Human Rights (1982)
Prinzing, Friedrich, Epidemics Resulting from Wars (Oxford: Clarendon, 1916)
Rosenbaum, Alan S., Is the Holocaust Unique? Perspectives on comparative genocide (1996)
Rummel, Rudolph J.: China's Bloody Century : Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900 (1991); Lethal Politics : Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917 (1990); Democide : Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder (1992); Death By Government (1994), http://www2.hawaii.edu/~rummel/welcome.html.
Sheina, Robert L., Latin America's Wars: The Age of the Caudillo, 1791-1899
Here are just a few wars, oppressions and disturbances worldwide of the 20th Century which caused fewer than 6,000 deaths:

  1. United States Lynchings (1900-50)
    • 1952 World Almanac and Book of Fact, citing Tuskegee Inst. (sum of years 1900-50)
      • Whites: 195
      • Negroes: 1,791
      • TOTAL: 1,986
    • Linder [​http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/shipp/lynchstats.html​]
      • 1882-1899: 2,743 = 1,098 whites + 1,645 blacks
      • 1900-1964: 1,999, incl. 1,800 blacks + 197 whites
  2. Macedonia (1903)
    Revolt against the Turks
    • Gilbert, A History of the Twentieth Century
      • 1,000 rebels k. in battle
      • 4,700 villagers k. by Turks in retribution
    • Robert Kaplan, Balkan Ghosts (1993): 4,694 civilians and 994 guerrillas killed.
  3. Uruguay (1904)
    Govt. vs. Conservatives/Blancos
    • Small & Singer: 1,000 battle deaths
    • Eckhardt: 1,000
  4. Tibet (1904)
    War with UK
    • Gilbert, A History of the Twentieth Century​:
      • Tibet: 2,700 killed
      • UK: 37 dead in battle, 200 from cold and exposure
    • Eckhardt: 1,000
  5. Zulu Revolt (1905)
    • Cambridge History of Africa: 1,000-4,000
    • Coquery-Vidrovitch, Africa : endurance...​, 1988: 3,000
    • Gilbert: 3,000
    • Eckhardt: 1,000 civ. + 3,000 mil. = 4,000
  6. Kenya (1905)
    Cambridge History of Africa
    • Nandi vs UK: 600 warriors k.
    • Gusi vs UK: 400 natives k.
  7. Bali (1906)
    Puputan Massacre: 3,600 k. in Denpasar by Dutch (Britannica)
  8. Nigeria (1906)
    British punitive expedition against Satiru: 2,000 massacred (Pakenham, The Scramble for Africa)
  9. Central American Wars (1906-07)
    • 1906
      • Small & Singer
        • Guatemala: 400
        • Honduras: 300
        • El Salvador: 300
        • TOTAL: 1,000
      • Eckhardt: 1,000
    • 1907
      • Singer
        • Nicaragua: 400
        • El Salvador: 300
        • Honduras: 300
        • TOTAL: 1000
      • Eckhardt: 1,000
  10. Persia (1908-09)
    Govt. vs. Constitutionalists
    • Singer: 1,100 battle deaths, including 100 Russians
    • Eckhardt: 1,000
  11. Paraguay (1911-12)
    Govt vs. Liberals
    • Singer: 2,000 battle deaths
    • Eckhardt: 2,000
  12. Cuba (1912)
    Encylopedia Americana (2003): 3,000 non-whites k. in revolt of Ivonet & Estenoz
  13. Tibet (1912-13)
    War with China: 2,000 (Eckhardt)
  14. Ireland (1916-22)
    • Easter Uprising 1916
      • Gilbert
        • Rebels: 64 KIA + 15 executed
        • UK: >100 KIA
        • Civilians: >200
        • [TOTAL: >379]
      • Our Times: >450
      • Clodfelter: 318-450 rebels + 132 Crown k. [= 450-682]
    • BBC: 3,000 k. in Irish Civil War [​http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/alabaster/A698862​]
    • Clodfelter
      • War of Independence (1919-21): 566 Crown + 196 Irish k.
      • Civil War (1922-23): 667 recorded dead
    • Charles Townshend, The British Campaign in Ireland 1919-1921 (1975) cites the Irish Official Statistics of Outrages 1919-21:
      • Police killed: 405
      • Miltary killed: 150
      • Civilians killed: 196
      • TOTAL: 751
    • Dorothy Macardle, The Irish Republic (1937)
      • "Killed on the Irish side":
        • 1 Jan. 1919-12 June 1921: 752
        • 21 June 1920-18 June 1922: 428
      • Govt. losses, July & Aug. 1922: 540k
      • She also lists 117 executions by name.
  15. Morocco (1916-17)
    Civil War w/ French intervention
    Eckhardt: 1,000 civ. + 1,000 mil. = 2,000
  16. Russian Revolution (1917)
    Eckhardt: 1,000 civ. + 1,000 mil. = 2,000
  17. Tibet (1918)
    War with China : 1,000 (Eckhardt)
  18. Nigeria (1918)
    Egba Uprising: 1,000 rebels k. (​Cambridge History of Africa)
  19. Haiti (1915-20)
    Péralte Rebellion
    • Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean (1994): 3,071 Haitians and 13 USAns killed, 1918-20
    • Robert Heinl, Written in Blood : The Story of the Haitian People 1492-1995 (1996):
      • "conservative estimate": 2,250 Cacos k.
      • Schmidt: 3,250
      • Gaillard: 15,000
    • John E. Fagg, Cuba, Haiti & the Dominican Republic (1965): 2,250
    • Max Boot, The Savage Wars of Peace: 2,250 Cacos k (marines official toll) + 13 US Marines + 27 Haitian gendarmes
  20. 3rd Anglo-Afghan War (1919)
    • Ludwig Adames, Dictionary of Afghan Wars, Revolutions and Insurgencies (1996): 236 UK KIA + 566 other UK dead
    • OnWar.com: 1,000 Afgh. + 2,000 UK = 3,000
    • Civil War w/ French [sic] intervention: 1,000 mil. (Eckhardt) [French?]
  21. Germany (1919)
    • Spartacist Revolt: 1,200 revolutionaries killed in Berlin (Our Times; Gilbert)
    • Bavaria: 1,000 revolutionaries killed in Munich (Gilbert)
  22. Franco-Syrian War (1920)
    Eckhardt: 5,000
  23. Poland-Lithuania War (1920)
    Eckhardt: 1,000 civ.
  24. USA, Chicago gangster war (1920s)
    Clodfelter: 500 k.
  25. Honduras (1924)
    Govt. vs. Conservatives: 1,000 (S&S, Eckhardt)
  26. Sino-Soviet War (1929)
    • Singer:
      • USSR: 200
      • China: 3,000
      • TOTAL: 3,200
    • Eckhardt: 3,000 mil.
  27. Peru, Aprista Uprising (1932)
    • Marley: 50 loyalists executed by rebels; 1,000 rebels executed by loyalists
    • Skidmore: 50 loyalists, 1-6,000 rebels executed
  28. Brazil (1932)
    Govt. vs. Paolistas: 1,000 (Singer, Eckhardt)
  29. Nicaragua​, Sandino Rebellion (1926-33)
    Max Boot, The Savage Wars of Peace: 47 USAns KIA, total of 136 US d. of all causes. Officially, 75 Nic. national guardsman k. No est. of Sandinista deaths.
  30. Iraq (1933)
    Kurds massacre Christians: 1,000 (Eckhardt)
  31. Spain (1934)
    Govt. vs. Asturias Miners:
    • Singer: 1,200
    • Eckhardt: 3,000 civ.
  32. Germany, Austria (1934)
    Fascist Govt. vs. Socialists (Eckhardt)
    • Germany: 1,000 civ.
    • Austria: 1,000 civ. + 1,000 mil. = 2,000
  33. Palestine​(1936-39)
    Arab Revolt: 5,032 Palestinians k. + 146 hanged [​http://middleeastreference.org.uk/Chronology.html​]
  34. Manchuria​, Changkufeng Incident (1938)
    Singer:
    • USSR: 1,200
    • Japan: 526
    • TOTAL: 1,726
  35. Franco-Thai War (1940-41)
    • Singer:
      • France: 700
      • Thailand: 700
      • TOTAL: 1,400
    • Eckhardt: 2,000 civ. + 2,000 mil. = 4,000
  36. Iran (1945-47)
    Soviet occupation of Azerbaijan: 2,000 (B&J)
  37. Palestine (1945-48)
    Irgun v. UK
    • Paul Johnson: 347 killed, Aug.1945-Sept.1947
    • WPA3: 223 UK soldiers KIA, 1946-48
  38. Paraguay (1947)
    Govt. vs. Leftists
    • Singer, Eckhardt: 1,000
    • Clodfelter: 4,000
  39. Yemen (1948)
    Govt. vs. Yahya Family: 4,000 (Singer, Eckhardt)
  40. Costa Rica (1948)
    Govt. vs. National Union Party
    • B&J: 1,000
    • Marley: 1,600
    • Singer: 2,000
    • Eckhardt: 1,000 civ. + 1,000 mil. = 2,000
  41. India (1948)
    Hyderabad
    • Singer: 1,000 Indian troops KIA
    • B&J: 800 Indians KIA
    • Eckhardt: 1,000 civ. + 1,000 mil. = 2,000
  42. Thailand (1948-77)
    WHPSI: 1,570 deaths by pol. viol. (1948-77)
  43. Cuba (1952-​59​)
    • Batista regime (1952-59)
      • Mario Lazo, Dagger in the Heart : American Policy Failures in Cuba (1968), calls Castro's charge that 20,000 were killed by Batista a "cynical falsehood". He says "total deaths ... not more than 900 on both [sides]"
      • Mid-Century World, Newsweek (1970) believes the accusation: 20,000 executions in 2 years. (This is probably the only mainstream American source that does. Most simply ignore it.)
      • Hugh Thomas, Cuba, or, the pursuit of freedom (1971, 1988): 1,500-2,000 deaths as a direct consequence of the political crisis, 1952-58, including war.
      • Gilbert: 2,000 deaths in 6 years of war and punitive actions.
    • Civil War, 1958-59:
      • B&J: 5,000
      • Singer: 5,000 battle deaths, 1958-59
      • Eckhardt: 2,000 civ. + 3,000 mil. = 5,000 (1958-59)
      • WHPSI: 3,977 deaths from political violence, 1956-63
  44. Bolivia (1952)
    Govt. vs. Leftists
    • WHPSI: 1,500
    • Singer: 2,000
    • Eckhardt: 1,000 civ. + 1,000 mil. = 2,000
    • Clodfelter: 3,000
  45. Tunisia (1952-56)
    Independence from France
    • Eckhardt: 3,000 civ. (1952-54)
    • B&J: 2,000 civ. (1952-56)
  46. Morocco (1953-56)
    Independence from France: 3,000 civ. (Eckhardt)
  47. Korea, DMZ (1953- )
    July 2003 Nat. Geographic​: 1,373 k. in border skirmishes
  48. Taiwan, civil strife (1954-55)
    • WHPSI: 4,600 (1954-55)
    • Eckhardt: 5,000
  49. Paraguay (1954-​89​)
    Alfredo Stroessner regime
    According to Americas Watch, 200-400 suspected guerrillas murdered in mid-1960s (30 March 1999 Orange County Register​; 13 June 1993 Plain Dealer)
  50. Argentina (1955)
    Overthrow of Peron
    • Singer: 3,000
    • Eckhardt: 2,000 civ. + 2,000 mil. = 4,000
    • Encarta​: 4,000
    • WHPSI: 6,600
  51. Central America (1955)
    Nicaragua vs. Costa Rica: 1,000 (B&J)
  52. Cyprus (1955-59)
    • WPA3
      • UK: 142
      • Turkish Cypriots: 84
      • Greek Cypriots: 278
    • B&J: 100 UK + 500 Cypriots
    • 11 Nov. 2000 Times [London]: 100 British soldiers
  53. Morocco​, King Hassan II (1956-99)
    "2005 December - Truth commission investigating human rights abuses during the rule of King Hassan II says 592 people were killed between 1956-99." (BBC, "Morocco profile", 24 January 2013) [​http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14123260​]
  54. Central America (1957)
    Nicaragua vs. Honduras: 1,000 (B&J)
  55. Lebanon (1958)
    Govt. vs. Leftists
    • B&J: 1,300
    • Singer: 1,400
    • Eckhardt: 1,000 civ. + 1,000 mil. = 2,000
  56. Iraq (1959-66)
    Coups:
    • Govt. vs. Shammar Tribe, et al., 1959:
      • WHPSI: 2,300
      • Eckhardt: 1,000 civ. + 1,000 mil. = 2,000
      • Small & Singer: 2,000
    • 1963: 1,400 (​WHPSI​)
    • 1966: 2,000 (​WHPSI​)
  57. Spain (1961 et seq.)
    Govt. vs. Basque separatists:
    • CDI: >750
    • 29 April 1999 AP: 800
  58. Tunisia (1961)
    War with France:
    • WHPSI: 2,000
    • WPA3: 1,300 Tunisians; 21 French
    • Encarta​: 1,300 Tunisians
    • B&J: 1,000
  59. Sino-Indian War (1962)
    • Singer:
      • China: 500
      • India: 500
    • B&J:
      • China: 1,000
      • India: 2,000
    • Eckhardt: 1,000 civ. + 1,000 mil. = 2,000
    • WPA3: 1,383 Indians KIA; China n/a
  60. Malaysia (1962-65)
    Indonesia Confrontation
    • B&J: 1000 k, incl 75 Brits + 600 Indonesians
    • WPA3: 114 Commonwealth + 590 Indonesians
    • Hartman: 114 UK + 600 Indonesians
  61. South Arab Fed. (1963-67)
    • B&J: 1,000 k., incl. 40 UK mil.
    • 11 Nov. 2000 Times [London]: 163 British soldiers
    • Hartman:
      • Local nationalists: 290
      • British forces: 57
      • Local forces: 17
      • British civilians: 18
      • TOTAL: 382
    • WPA3: 92 UK mil. + 18 UK civ.
  62. Kenya (1963-67)
    Border dispute w/ Somalia
    • Dan Smith: 5,000
    • B&J: 4,200
  63. Cyprus (1963-67)
    B&J: 1,000
  64. Zambia (1964)
    Govt. vs. Lumpas
    • WHPSI: 1,300 deaths from domestic violence, 1964
    • Eckhardt: 1,000
  65. Congo-Leopoldville (1964-65)
    Stanleyville revolt
    Harff & Gurr: 1,000 to 10,000 educated Congolese, missionaries, Europeans killed by breakaway Congolese People's Republic
  66. Brazil, Military Regime (1964-85)
    Political prisoners killed
    • 6 Sept. 1990 Financial Times, London:
      • Mass grave discovered containing 1,700 bodies, both criminals and dissidents eliminated by regime.
      • 138 people disappeared, 1969-74
    • 21 Nov. 1990 San Fran. Chronicle​: 300 k
    • Alfred McCoy, "Dark Legacy", 20 September 1999: 266 extra-judicial killings in Brazil [​http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/54a/062.html​]
    • 12 Oct. 1995 Chicago Tribune​: 150-350 disappeared
    • 4 Dec. 1998 Guardian​, London: 150
  67. Central African Republic/Empire (1965-79)
    Bokassa's Regime:
    • Rummel: 2,000 democides total
    • 29 Jan. 1987 UPI: Bokassa on trial for 40 murders
    • Washington Post
      • 3 July 1979: troops killed 200 schoolboys for protesting the expense of school uniforms.
      • 3 June 1979: 60 youths k. in Ngaragba Prison on April 19
  68. Uganda (1966)
    Govt. vs. Buganda
    • 2,900 (​WHPSI​)
    • 2,000 (Singer, Eckhardt)
  69. Congo (Kinshasa) (1967-68)
    Mercenary Uprising: 2,000 (B&J)
  70. Greece, military junta (1967-74)
    student uprising at the Athens Polytechnic
    • 28 June 1999 Washington Post: 50+
    • 7 July 1999 Manchester Guardian Weekly: 34
  71. Czechoslovakia (1968)
    Prague Spring uprising
    • WPA3: 70 Czechs killed
    • Tina Rosenburg, The Haunted Land: 45 k
    • B&J: 1,000
  72. Paraguay (1968-74)
    • The Ache Indians began the 20th Century with 10,000 people. The population had dropped to 2,000 by 1968 when a series of massacres killed a further 900. (Richard Arens, ed., Genocide in Paraguay (1976); also the 30 Jan. 1977 Washington Post review of the book.)
    • Harff & Gurr: 900k (1962-72)
  73. Iraq (1968)
    Purges by new Ba'ath Government
    PBS: 2,000 [​http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/longroad/etc/mind.html​]
  74. India (1968 et seq.)
    Gov't vs. Naxalites
    • Harff & Gurr: 1,000-3,000 Naxalites killed (1968-82)
    • Ploughshares 2000: up to 6,000 since 1980 in Andhra Pradesh
  75. Sino-Soviet Border War (1969)
    • Wikipedia (6/2005): 800 Chinese K+W; 60 Soviet K+W (1969)
    • B&J: 3,000 (1963-69)
  76. Soccer War (1969)
    • Singer:
      • Honduras: 1200
      • El Salvador: 700
      • TOTAL: 1900
    • WPA3: 2,000
    • Hartman: 4,000
    • Eckhardt: 3,000 civ. + 2,000 mil. = 5,000
    • B&J: 5,000
  77. Northern Ireland, The Troubles (1969-98)
    • According to D.Smith:
      • 1970-74: 1,132
      • 1975-79: 850
      • 1980-84: 415
      • 1985-89: 363
      • 1990-94: 400
      • TOTAL: 3,160
    • On 20 Jan. 1998, the New York Times gave the score as 3,235.
    • 16 April 1999 Irish Times
      • Civilians: 1,868
      • Paramilitaries
        • Republican: 439
        • Loyalist: 110
      • Security forces
        • British soldiers: 511
        • Locally recruited : 504
      • TOTAL: 3,506
    • 22 Aug. 2000 The Herald (Glasgow): 3,304
    • 11 Nov. 2000 Times [London]: 671 British soldiers
  78. Jordan (1970-71)
    Black September Uprising:
    • Hartman cites Palestinian claims that 10,000 to 25,000 were killed.
    • Singer: 2,100
    • WHPSI: 2,045
    • B&J: 2,000
    • Eckhardt: 1,000 civ. + 1,000 mil. = 2,000
  79. Mexico (1970-85)
    • 9 Dec. 2001 LA Times: 275+ citizens disappeared by govt. agents.
    • Human Rights Watch, Mexico's National Human Rights Commission: A Critical Assessment. (Feb. 2008): "The CNDH examined 532 cases.... at least 275 individuals had been arrested, tortured, and disappeared by state forces.... [and] the other 257 individuals [may have also] been disappeared during that time."
    • Juan Forero, “Details of Mexico's Dirty Wars From 1960s to 1980s Released”, Washington Post, November 22, 2006: "The report includes the names of 645 people who were disappeared by the state security apparatus.... It also includes the names of 99 people who were victims of extrajudicial executions."
  80. Sri Lanka (1971)
    Govt. vs. Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna:
    • Hartman: 1,200
    • WPA3: 1,200
    • Clodfelter: 60 govt. + 1,200 JVP
    • Singer: 2,000
    • Eckhardt: 1,000 civ. + 1,000 mil. = 2,000
    • WHPSI: 5,096
  81. Bolivia (1971-78)
    Military Regime under Hugo Banzer
    • 14 March 1999 NY Times: 200 disappearances
    • 6 May 2002 Guardian​: 100 disappearances, 39 murders & >400 deaths
  82. Philippines​, martial law under Ferdinand Marcos (1972-86)
    Alfred McCoy, "Dark Legacy: Human rights under the Marcos regime", 20 September 1999: 3,257 extra-judicial killings [​http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/54a/062.html​]
    • including 737 Filipinos "disappeared" between 1975 and 1985
    • (part of a larger civil war)
  83. Uruguay​, Military Regime (1973-85)
    • 17 April 1989 NY Times:
      • 200 political prisoners disappeared, 1973-85
      • 61 Tupamaro rebels KIA
      • 50 soldiers/police KIA
    • 4 Dec. 1998 Guardian​, London: 170 disappeared by govt.
  84. Chile (1973-90)
    • 1973 Coup
      • Eckhardt: 5,000 killed in 1973 coup; 20,000 executions in 1974.
      • Our Times: 5,000 (US Govt. estimate) to 30,000 (human rights groups)
      • Grenville: 5,000, perhaps 15,000
      • Paul Sigmund, The Overthrow of Allende and the Politics of Chile: 1964-1976 (1977) cites
        • NY Times: 2,500
        • "opponents": as high as 80,000
        • "more reliable estimates": 3,000-10,000
      • 1 July 1999 Kansas City Star:
        • CIA estimates: 2,000-10,000
        • Official count by Chilean Junta: 244
      • Clodfelter
        • According to opposition ("probably inflated")
          • Civilians: 14,800, incl. 3,000 in 1st day and 5,900 in Santiago
          • Soldiers: 100 loyal to govt + 400 loyal to Pinochet
        • "Military's own admission"
          • 1,500 k. or executed during coup.
          • 700 disappeared + 974 executed during rule.
      • Paul Johnson, citing 8 Oct. 1973 Newsweek​: 2,796 bodies in the Santiago morgue.
      • Gilbert: >2,500
      • Skidmore: at least 2,000
      • Marley: 1,500
      • WHPSI: 537 deaths from political violence and 465 political executions in 1973. Total: 1002
      • St. Petersburg Times, Oct. 1, 1973: Newsweek's claim of 2,796 bodies in the Santiago morgue came from the daughter of a morgue worker. The Newsweek reporter personally saw some 270 bodies in the morgue. The junta claimed that 284 had died in the coup, plus 10 executions.
      • AVERAGE:
        Median: 2,800-3,200
    • Pinochet regime (1973-90)
      • NPR: 3,000
      • Gilbert: >2,528 arrested and killed.
      • Grenville: 3,000 disappearances
      • February 1995 report by the Corporation for Reparation and Reconciliation [​http://www.amnesty.it/AIlibtop/1996/AMR/22200196.htm​]:
        • Extrajudicial executions and deaths under torture: 2,095
        • disappearances: 1,102
        • TOTAL: 3,197
      • Alfred McCoy, "Dark Legacy", 20 September 1999: 2,115 extra-judicial deaths under General Pinochet in Chile [​http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/54a/062.html​]
  85. Cyprus (1974)
    • Clodfelter: 4,500-6,000 Greeks mil/civ k + 2,000-3,000 missing/presumed d. + 300 Turkish mil. k. [= 6,800-9,300]
    • Eckhardt: 3,000 civ. + 2,000 mil. = 5,000 (1975-85)
    • B&J: 5,000 (1974-78)
    • John J. Mearsheimer (Aug. 1990 Atlantic Monthly​): 1,500 to 5,000
    • Singer:
      • Turkey: 1000
      • Cyprus: 500
    • WHPSI: 917 deaths from political violence, 1974
  86. Turkey, (1975-​80​)
    Extremist violence
    • 13 Feb. 1980 AP: 2,800 since 1975
    • 12 Aug. 1980 AP:
      • 1976: 82k
      • 1977: 231k
      • 1978: 1,170k
      • 1979: >2,000k
      • 1980: >1,400k "already"
    • 12 Oct. 1980 NY Times: "claimed ... 2,000 lives this year"
  87. Bangladesh​, (1975 et seq.)
    Chittagong uprising
    • B&J: 3,500
    • SIPRI 1997: 3,000-3,500 to 1996
    • CDI: >3,000 (1975-97)
  88. Zaire (1977-83)
    • Farmer's Rebellion, Bandundu Region (1977-78): 2,000 (24 Feb. 1978 AP; Dan Smith)
    • Kolwezi Raid (1977-78): 855 (11 July 1978 Washington Post)
    • Mobutu Regime: 3-4,000 opponents killed, 1977-83 (Harff & Gurr)
  89. Guyana​, Jonestown (1978)
    Mass suicide of the People's Temple
    Crime Library: 913 [​http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial4/jonestown/​]
  90. Iran (1978-79)
    Overthrow of the Shah
    • 16 Dec. 1979 Washington Post:
      • Khomeini's followers claims 60-100,000 massacred
      • "American journalists who witnessed...": 5,000
    • Marvin Zonis, Majestic Failure : the Fall of the Shah (1991) estimates a maximum of 5,000 killed during the revolution. In addition, he cites these estimates:
      • Revolutionary regime: 60-100,000 "martyrs"
      • Eqbal Ahmadi: 70,000
      • James A Bill: 10-12,000
      • Said Arjomand: 3,000
      • Ervand Abrahamian: 1,000 individuals counted by name
    • Singer: 7,500
  91. South Korea (1980)
    Kwangju Uprising
    • Dictionary of 20th Century World History: 2,000 demonstrators killed
    • Robert Oliver, History of the Korean People in Modern Times (1993): Govt claims 200 k.; opposition claims 2,000 k.
  92. Jamaica (1980)
    Election violence : 1,000 civ. (Eckhardt)
  93. Brazil (1980)
    Rightist Terrorism
    Eckhardt: 1,000
  94. Bolivia, regime of Luis Garcia Meza (1980-81)
    NotiSur (citing Amn.Int.): >1,000 k. by the military [​http://ssdc.ucsd.edu/news/notisur/h95/notisur.19950317.html​]
  95. Turkey (​1980​-87)
    Military Regime
    21 Jan. 1982 Financial Times (London): 12 executions, 100 shot during arrests, 60 prisoners died in custody in first 16 months.
  96. Honduras (1980-88)
    140 civilians killed by Army death squads (19 Jan. 1988 NY Times)
  97. Gambia (1981)
    Coup and countercoup: 1,000 (Gilbert)
  98. Ghana (1981-95)
    Konkomba vs Nanumba
    • 1981: 1,000 (Eckhardt)
    • Feb. 1993: 1,000 (14 Apr. 1994 Denver Rocky Mt. News; 17 Apr. 1994 Washington Post)
    • BBC ("1994-95 ... ethnic violence"): 1,000 [​http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/country_profiles/1023355.stm​]
  99. Falkland Islands War (1982)
    • UK: 255 killed (Gilbert; Our Times; SIPRI 1983; Marley; 24 Dec. 1989 Arizona Republic​; 11 Nov. 2000 Times [London])
    • Argentina:
      • SIPRI 1983: 500-700
      • Gilbert: 652
      • 24 Dec. 1989 Arizona Republic​: 712
      • Our Times: 712
      • Marley: 1,000
    • B&J: 1,200 Total
  100. Senegal (1982- )
    Govt. vs. Movement of the Democratic Forces of the Casamance
    • 23 May 1999 Denver Rocky Mtn News: 1,000
    • Ploughshares 2000: 1,200
  101. Zimbabwe​, Mugabe Regime (1980- )
    The Gukurahundi
    • Eckhardt: 2,000 civ. (Political violence, 1983)
    • 2 March 2002 Guardian​: up to 20,000 k in 1984 [​http://www.guardian.co.uk/Distribution/Redirect_Artifact/0%2C4678%2C0-660287%2C00.html​]
    • 10 July 2000 Time: 5,000 Matabele and other dissidents [​http://www.time.com/time/europe/magazine/2000/0710/zimbabwe.html​]
  102. Grenada​, US invasion (1983)
    • USA: 18 (War Annual; Jan Rogozinski, A Brief History of the Caribbean​, 1994) or 19 (Marley) or 42 (B&J)
    • Cubans: 24 (War Annual; Rogozinski) or 25 (Marley) or up to 70 (B&J)
    • Granadian military: 60 (War Annual) or 45 (Marley) or 16 (Rogozinski)
    TOTAL: 250 (B&J) or 102 (War Annual) or 89 (Marley) or 68 (Rogozinski)
  103. Brazil (1985-94)
    • Children murdered
      • Dan Smith: 7,000, by death squads (1987-91; citing a parliamentary commission)
      • 1 Feb. 1994 Sun-Sentinel​, Ft. Lauderdale: 5,000 murdered (1988-91) by police, death squads, gangs, kin, etc.
      • 29 Nov. 1991 Chicago Tribune​: 2,000 by death squads in last 4 years
      • 21 Nov. 1990 San Fran. Chronicle​: 1081 k. by death squads, 1985-89, in Rio de J.
      • 6 Sept. 1990 Toronto Star: 457 in 3 cities "last year" by death squads, citing Amnesty Int.
    • Yanomami Indians
      In the face of murder and oppression, the population of the Yanomamis declined by some 1,000 to 2,000 between 1987 and 1991, and now stands at around 7,500. (6 Sept 1990 Reuters​; 17 Oct 1991 Los Angeles Times; 4 Oct 1990 Latin America Weekley Report)
  104. Paraguay (1989)
    overthrow of Stroessner
    • 23 April 1997 Baltimore Sun: 500 soldiers k.
    • 3 Feb. 1989 LA Times: 250 people k.
    • 7 Feb. 1989 Washington Post: 300 k.
  105. Romania (1989)
    Overthrow of Communism
    • War Annual 4: 4,000
    • WPA3: 4,000
    • 27 Dec. 1989 LA Times: 1,000+ (not more, as reported earlier)
    • Encyclopedia Americana (2003), "Romania": 1,000
    • SIPRI 1990: 750-1100
  106. Panama​, US invasion (1989)
    • B&J: 550
    • Chicago Tribune​, 31 March 1993
      • The documentary, The Panama Deception​, "asserts that thousands of civilians were killed".
      • However: "[N]o organization in Panama has been able to document more than the official estimates of about 500 deaths, including 300 civilians."
    • The Panama Deception​: >4,000 civilians [​http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article4078.htm​]
    • Chomsky (1991), civilian deaths:
      • Official US: 202
      • Physicians for Human Rights + Americas Watch: 300
      • Exhumed graves: 600
      • NY Times, 1 Apr. 1990: 673
      • Costa Rican press citing human rights groups: >2,000
      • Joint delegation of CODEHUCA + CONADEHUPA​: 2,000 - 3,000
      • Mexican press citing 2 Catholic bishops: 3,000
    • Marley
      • USA: 23
      • Pan. military: 297
      • Civilians: 500
      • TOTAL: 820
    • Our Times, citing Pentagon numbers
      • USA: 23
      • Pan. military: 57
      • Civilians: 459
      • TOTAL: 539
    • HRW: 300 civilians [​http://www.hrw.org/reports/1991/panama/​]
      Official Pentagon death toll:
      • Panamanian military
        • 11 Jan. 1990: 314
        • March 1990: 50
      • Civilians: 202
    • War Annual 4
      • USA: 23
      • Panamanian military: 293
      • Civilians: up to 700
      • TOTAL: up to 1016
    • Washington Post, 11 June 1992
      • Official Pentagon death toll:
        • US: 23
        • Panamanian military: 314
        • Civilians: 202
        • TOTAL: 539
      • Panama Human Rights Commission:
        • Pan. military: 57
        • Civilians: 183
        • Undetermined: 83
        • Disappeared: 80
        • TOTAL: 403
    • AVERAGE (Civilian Death Toll): Of these 14 estimates, the MEDIAN is 500-600. The MEAN is 1,166.
  107. China (1989)
    Tienamen Square
    • Encarta​: 3-5,000
    • 21 June 1989 NY Times: Early estimates of 2600-3000 without basis. Survey of hospitals indicates about a dozen soldiers/policemen killed + 400-800 civilians.
    • Hammond: "initial reports ... of 3,000, later revised to 400-800."
  108. Rwanda (1990)
    13 Oct. 1990 St. Louis Post-Dispatch​: 1,000 civilians killed by govt. troops
  109. Moldova (1990-97)
    Civil War
    • CDI: 1,000 (1991-97)
    • B&J: >800 (1990-92)
    • 9 May 1993 Fort Worth Star-Telegram: 800
  110. Kenya (1991- )
    Ethnic Clash
    • CDI: 1,500 (1991-95)
    • Dan Smith: 2,000 (1992-94)
    • Ploughshares 2000: 4,500
  111. Haiti (1991-94)
    • Cedras coup and aftermath:
      • CDI: 3,000 k.
      • 22 March 92 Toronto Star: 1,500
    • Refugees drowned fleeing coup:
      • 5 July 1994 Ft. Lauderdale Sun-Sentinel: 1,000
      • 8 July 94 Intepress: 5,000
  112. Egypt (1992-)
    Muslim Brotherhood vs. Govt.
    • Ploughshares 2000: 1,300
    • 23 May 1999 Denver Rocky Mtn News: 1,200
  113. India (1992 et seq.)
    Riots between Hindus and Moslems
    • 1992 Ayodha mosque
      • 2 March 2002 AP: 2,000
      • 2 March 2002 Irish Times: >2,000 k.
      • 1 March 2002 National Post: >3,000 (1992-93)
    • 1993 Bombay: >800 (2 March 2002 AP; 4 April 2002 Montreal Gazette​)
    • 2002 Gujerat: >800 (4 April 2002 Montreal Gazette​)
  114. Pakistan​, Sindh War (1992- )
    • Dict.Wars: 5,000
    • Ploughshares 2000: 4-5,000
  115. Peru-Ecuador War (1995-97)
    CDI: <100
  116. Albania (1997)
    Chaos following collapse of economy: 1,500 (Chicago Tribune, 27 June 1997)
  117. Mexican-American Border (1997- )
    1,013 illegal migrants found dead along Mex-Am border Oct 1997-June 2001 [​http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d01842.pdf​]
  118. Iraq (1998)
    Punitive bombing by USA
    The official US estimates were announced 9 Jan. 1999, but I'm not sure the press was paying attention. They all agree that the low was 600 Iraqis killed, but the high was variously reported as 1,200 (​Christian Science Monitor​), 1,600 (NY Times, Montreal Gazette​) or 2,000 (Buffalo News, Houston Chronicle​). There also seems to be some confusion over whether the 600+ contains all types of Iraqi military, or just Republican Guards. And to further cloud the issue, I've seen articles (not cited here) which give these numbers as "casualties" (Which technically includes wounded.)
  119. Indonesia (1998)
    May riots in Jakarta: 1,190 k. (23 Dec. 1998 Washington Post)
  120. Brazil, police killings (1998-99)
    • HRW [​http://www.hrw.org/wr2k1/americas/​]: In Sao Paolo State, police killed 525 civilians in 1998 and 664 in 1999. Autopsies suggest that ca. 1/3 were shot in back or multiple times.
    • 24 Oct. 1999 Guardian​: In state of Rio, police killed 700+ in 1998.
  121. Kashmir (1999)
    Kargil War, India vs. Pakistan
    • 1999/7/6 CNN: 1,100
    • Ploughshares 2000, citing
      • US State Department
        • Indian soldiers: 524
        • Pakistani soldiers: 696 (early, partial)
      • InterPress Service: > 2,000 troops k
List of Recurring Sources
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Last updated Oct. 2010
Copyright © 1998-2010 Matthew White