Militias, armed groups and third states, backing warring parties, committed violations of international humanitarian law, including possible war crimes, with impunity. Fighting in and around the capital, Tripoli, and other cities in western Libya between forces loyal to the Government of National Accord (GNA) and the Libyan Arab Armed Forces (LAAF) led to the killing and wounding of civilians, mass displacement, and damage to civilian infrastructure, including hospitals. In violation of the UN arms embargo, Turkey, Russia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), among other countries, continued to supply their allies with arms and military equipment, including banned anti-personnel mines. Thousands of people were detained arbitrarily without trial or the possibility to challenge the legality of their detention. Militias and armed groups abducted people on the basis of their actual or perceived political, regional or tribal affiliation and nationality, including protesters, journalists, doctors, government employees and civil society activists; took hostages for ransom; and tortured or otherwise ill-treated them in official and unofficial places of detention. Women, girls and members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex community continued to face discrimination and violence. Members of ethnic minorities struggled to access adequate health care and other essential services. Officials, members of armed groups and militias, and criminal gangs systematically subjected detained refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants to torture and other ill-treatment, unlawful killings, sexual violence and forced labour. Military courts handed down death sentences; no executions were reported.
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