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WAR CRIMES AND CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY
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RESEARCH
EUROPE AND CENTRAL ASIA
JUSTICE SYSTEMS
Concerns in Europe May-December 1994
This report gives information about AI's main concerns in 35 countries in Europe in the period May-December 1994. Human rights violations of concern to AI in that period included imprisonment of prisoners of conscience; allegations of ill-treatment and torture of detainees; deaths following ill-treatment in custody or shootings; human rights abuses in the context of armed conflicts; victimization of members of ethnic minorities; asylum issues; conscientious objection to military service; and the death penalty.
Date: 1 February 1995Ref:EUR 01/001/1995
RESEARCH
SUDANDISCRIMINATION
Amnesty International News Service 13/95
1. Cambodia: Amnesty Internationa calls on the Cambodian Government to respect the rights of ethnic Vietnamese.
Date: 20 January 1995Ref:NWS 11/013/1995
RESEARCH
RWANDAARMED CONFLICT
Amnesty International News Service 255/94
1. Amnesty International welcomes UN decision to esablish ad hoc tribunal for Rwanda.
Date: 9 November 1994
Ref:
NWS 11/255/1994
RESEARCH
ETHIOPIAJUSTICE SYSTEMS
Amnesty International News Service 247/94
1. Ethiopia: Special prosecutor charges detained former officials with human rights crimes.
Date: 28 October 1994Ref:NWS 11/247/1994
RESEARCH
RWANDA
KILLINGS AND DISAPPEARANCES
Establishing a just, fair and effective International Criminal Court
This document is a comprehensive memorandum to governments and members of the public concerning the proposed permanent International Criminal Court. It discusses the basic principles which should be retained in or incorporated into the draft Statute of such a court and suggests ways of strengthening the draft Statute during the forthcoming debates in the Sixth Committee of the General Assembly. Also discussed are the jurisdiction and structure of the proposed court and the protection of the rights of defendants and of victims and witnesses.
Date: 30 September 1994
Ref:
IOR 40/005/1994
RESEARCH
BURUNDIARMED CONFLICT
Amnesty International News Service 200/94
1. AI calls on governments to ensure human rights violators in Rwanda and Burundi are brought to justice; 2. Brazil: AI challenges presidential candidates to stand up for human rights.
Date: 30 August 1994Ref:NWS 11/200/1994
RESEARCH
SRI LANKAJUSTICE SYSTEMS
"Disappearances" and political killings: human rights crisis of the 1990s: a manual for action
This report is part of a campaign launched by AI to combat "disappearances" and political killings all over the world. Chapters 1-6 of this report are case studies, describing patterns of "disappearance" and extrajudicial execution in Iraq, Colombia, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka, Turkey and Morocco. Chapter 7 discusses the concepts of "disappearance" and political killings and analyzes how they are carried out, giving examples.
Date: 1 February 1994Ref:ACT 33/001/1994
RESEARCH
NAMIBIA
KILLINGS AND DISAPPEARANCES
Peace-keeping and human rights
This paper examines the evolution of human rights protection and promotion in the context of United Nations (UN) peace-keeping operations. It sets out AI's 15-Point Program for Implementing Human Rights in Peace-keeping Operations. The first part of the paper examines the role of the UN so far in the area of peace-keeping and human rights protection. It includes case-studies of recent peace-keeping operations and proposes a series of human rights measures to be included in the planning and implementation of future operations.
Date: 1 January 1994Ref:IOR 40/001/1994
RESEARCH
CHADARMED CONFLICT
Report on the International Conference for the Protection of War Victims, and AI's statement: violations of human rights in armed conflict: proposals for action
In this statement Amnesty International draws attention to violations committed during armed conflict by both governments and armed opposition groups. It emphasizes the need for the international community to apply pressure for human rights observance both during and after conflict: the need to broker a peace agreement is often seen as being incompatible with addressing human rights issues. Furthermore the international community has a responsibility towards refugees: not only to provide protection, but to speak out and take steps to avert the measures from which asylum-seekers flee.
Date: 10 November 1993
Ref:
IOR 30/001/1993
RESEARCH
NIGERDISCRIMINATION
Statements to the 45th session of the UN Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities
Presented here are the five oral statements made by Amnesty International (AI) in August 1993 in Geneva. Under item 6 AI described the practice of political killings and "disappearances" by governments against political opponents; under item 10 on the administration of justice and the human rights of detainees, AI examined the question of impunity; under the new sub-item of item 18 on freedom of movement, AI highlighted its concerns about the right to seek asylum and the protection of refugees.
Date: 31 August 1993Ref:IOR 41/033/1993
RESEARCH
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
"Disappearances" and political killings: human rights crisis of the 1990s: a manual for action (pre-publication version) - Chapter G-2: "Disappearances" and extrajudicial executions as violations of international human rights
This chapter of a major forthcoming AI report, with Chapter G-6, shows how the UN and other intergovernmental organizations approach this problem, and examines the increasingly strict international human rights standards and the procedures and mechanisms for action. It looks at the rise in importance of such standards, the prohibition of "disappearances" and extrajudicial executions under these standards, the prohibition of arbitrary killings by law enforcement officials, and the prohibition of such violations in war.
Date: 6 July 1993Ref:ACT 33/005/1993
RESEARCH
SENEGALJUSTICE SYSTEMS
Weekly update service 54/93
1. Senegal: Amnesty International visits Senegal; 2. Syria: Supreme State Security Court trials: Amnesty International calls for the release of prisoners of conscience and fair hearings for others.
Date: 1 June 1993Ref:NWS 11/054/1993
RESEARCH
ARMED CONFLICT
Former Yugoslavia: Moving forward to set up the war crimes tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
In April Amnesty International set out 15 guiding principles it called on governments and the United Nations to abide by in creating the ad hoc international war crimes tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. On 3 May the UN Secretary General, Dr Boutros Boutros-Ghali, released his recommendations to the Security Council about how the Tribunal should be set up. This document assesses to what extent the Secretary General's proposals reflect AI's 15 guiding principles, and calls on the Security Council to give political backing to his recommendations if the Tribunal is to be just, fair and effective.
Date: 30 April 1993Ref:EUR 48/003/1993
RESEARCH
ARMED CONFLICT
Weekly Update Service 34/93
1. From Nuremberg to the Balkans: seeking justice and fairness in the international war crimes tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. 2. Extract from report on war crimes tribunal in former Yugoslavia: Amnesty International's expectations.
Date: 15 April 1993Ref:NWS 11/034/1993
RESEARCH
MOROCCO AND WESTERN SAHARA
KILLINGS AND DISAPPEARANCES
Weekly Update Service 32/93
1. Morocco: Amnesty International calls on government to halt system of "disappearances" once and for all.
Date: 6 April 1993Ref:NWS 11/032/1993
RESEARCH
ARMED CONFLICT
Former Yugoslavia: From Nuremberg to the Balkans: seeking justice and fairness in the international war crimes tribunal for the former Yugoslavia
On 22 February 1993, the UN Security Council decided in prinicple to set up an ad hoc international tribunal to try serious violations of humanitarian law committed during the conflicts in the former Yugoslavia since 1991. In this document Amnesty International sets out 15 guiding principles by which it will judge whether the Tribunal is just, fair and effective. These incorporate the following concerns: the Tribunal must be judicially independent and objective; have powers to effectively prosecute and convict; ensure the accused receive a fair trial; provide compensation and rehabilitation for victims; ensure victims, families and witnesses are protected; give special consideration to cases involving violence against women; it must not adopt the death penalty.
Date: 31 March 1993Ref:EUR 48/001/1993
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