The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica
"The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica" is identified as a contributor. What does that mean?
You will notice that many of the encyclopedic articles on this site are attributed in full or in part to the Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. The vast majority of articles attributed solely to the editors have been written, reviewed, or revised by external advisers and experts, and the lack of formal acknowledgment of their contributions was an editorial policy dating to the 1970s. In the absence of those authorities' names, Britannica's editors, who have played a key role in the development and maintenance of such articles, have been designated as the contributor. More recently, nearly all Britannica contributors have been credited by name—whether they are editors, experts, or other members of the Britannica community—and the "The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica" attribution has been used in encyclopedic articles that combine writing by named contributors and later substantive revisions by Britannica's editorial staff.
Britannica's editors include Adam Augustyn, Adam Zeidan, Alicja Zelazko, Alison Eldridge, Amy McKenna, Amy Tikkanen, Ann Gadzikowski, Barbara A. Schreiber, Brian Duignan, Caitlin Lozada, Claire Levin, Deepti Mahajan, Dutta Promeet, Emily Goldstein, Emily Rodriguez, Erik Gregersen, Everett Munez, Gaurav Shukla, Gita Liesangthem, Gloria Lotha, Grace Young, Henry Bolzon, J.E. Luebering, Jeff Wallenfeldt, Joan Hibler, John P. Rafferty, Kanchan Gupta, Kara Rogers, Kenny Chmielewski, Kokila Manchanda, Kurt Heintz, Laura Chaveriat, Letricia Dixon, Meg Matthias, Melissa Petruzzello, Michael Ray, Michele Metych, Patricia Bauer, Patrick Riley, Piyush Bhathya, Sheila Vasich, Sherman Hollar, Shiveta Singh, Shweta Gupta, Stephen Seddon, The Information Architects of Encyclopaedia Britannica, Veenu Setia, Wonyoung Jang, and World Data Editors.
Adam Augustyn
Adam Augustyn is Managing Editor, Reference Content at Encyclopædia Britannica.
Adam Zeidan
Adam Zeidan is an Assistant Editor, having joined Encyclopædia Britannica in 2018. He covers a range of topics related primarily to the Middle East and North Africa.
Alicja Zelazko
Alicja Zelazko is the Assistant Editor, Arts and Humanities, covering topics in the visual arts, architecture, music, and performance. Before joining Encyclopædia Britannica in 2017, she worked at the Art Institute of Chicago and taught courses in art appreciation.  
Alison Eldridge
Alison Eldridge is Managing Editor, Strategic Content at Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Amy McKenna
Amy McKenna is a senior editor, primarily focused on geography and history matters pertaining to sub-Saharan Africa. She joined Encyclopaedia Britannica in 2004. She was previously employed by Standard Educational Corporation, where she worked on the New Standard Encyclopedia for eight years.  
Amy Tikkanen
Amy Tikkanen is the general corrections manager, handling a wide range of topics that include Hollywood, politics, books, and anything related to the Titanic. She has worked at Britannica for more than two decades.
Ann Gadzikowski
Ann Gadzikowski is an author and educator with a passion for challenging children to think creatively and critically. In her current role as Director of Early Learning at Encyclopædia Britannica, Ann leads digital learning initiatives for young children and their families. Her book Creating a Beautiful Mess: Ten Essential Play Experiences for a Joyous Childhood won gold in the National Parenting Publications Awards.
Barbara A. Schreiber
Barbara Schreiber is an Editorial Assistant at Encyclopædia Britannica. She graduated cum laude from Saint Xavier University, Chicago, with a B.A. degree in Mass Communications. She also holds a M.A. degree in English Literature from Northwestern University in Evanston, Ill. She worked at the John G. Shedd Aquarium prior to joining the editorial staff at Britannica in 2001.
Brian Duignan
Brian Duignan is a senior editor at Encyclopædia Britannica. His subject areas include philosophy, law, social science, politics, political theory, and religion.
Caitlin Lozada
Caitlin Lozada is an Editorial Intern at Encylopædia Britannica in 2021.
Claire Levin
Claire Levin is an Editorial Intern at Encylopædia Britannica in 2021.
Deepti Mahajan
Content Analyst, Encyclopædia Britannica.
Dutta Promeet
Content Analyst, Encyclopædia Britannica.
Emily Goldstein
Emily Goldstein is a poet, producer, and media editor at Britannica. A master's candidate at DePaul University, Emily has spent the past five years exploring film, journalism, and radio.
Emily Rodriguez
Information Architect, Encylopædia Britannica.
Erik Gregersen
Erik Gregersen is a senior editor at Encyclopaedia Britannica, specializing in the physical sciences and technology. Before joining Britannica in 2007, he worked at the University of Chicago Press on the Astrophysical Journal. Prior to that, he worked at McMaster University on the ODIN radio astronomy satellite project. 
Everett Munez
Everett Munez is an Editorial Intern at Encyclopædia Britannica.
Gaurav Shukla
Content Analyst, Encyclopædia Britannica.
Gita Liesangthem
Content Analyst and Coordinator, Encyclopædia Britannica.
Gloria Lotha
Content Analyst and Coordinator, Encyclopædia Britannica.
Grace Young
Content Analyst, Encyclopædia Britannica.
Henry Bolzon
Head Librarian, Encyclopædia Britannica.
J.E. Luebering
J.E. Luebering is Executive Director of the Core Editorial Group at Encyclopaedia Britannica. He oversees the team of editors, writers, and researchers who create content for Britannica.com. He has worked at Britannica since 2004.
Jeff Wallenfeldt
Jeff Wallenfeldt, manager of Geography and History, has worked as an editor at Encyclopaedia Britannica since 1992.      
Joan Hibler
Associate editor, Compton's Encyclopedia.
John P. Rafferty
John P. Rafferty writes about Earth processes and the environment. He serves currently as the editor of Earth and life sciences, covering climatology, geology, zoology, and other topics that relate to the natural world. Prior to joining Encyclopaedia Britannica in 2006, he held teaching positions at Lewis University, Roosevelt University, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Kanchan Gupta
Content Analyst, Encyclopædia Britannica
Kara Rogers
Kara Rogers is the senior editor of biomedical sciences at Encyclopædia Britannica, where she oversees a range of content from medicine and genetics to microorganisms. She joined Britannica in 2006 and has been a member of the National Association of Science Writers since 2009.
Kenny Chmielewski
Kenny is associate cartographer at Britannica and has worked there since 2008. When not making maps and infographics for Britannica, he enjoys photographing the beautiful city of Chicago.
Kokila Manchanda
Content Analyst, Encyclopædia Britannica.
Kurt Heintz
Kurt Heintz is Senior Media Developer at Britannica. He is the producer for the podcasts On This Day, Postcards from the 6th Mass Extinction, and Botanize!. He has been with Britannica since 2001.
Laura Chaveriat
Learning Content Specialist, Encyclopædia Britannica.
Letricia Dixon
Copy Editor, Encyclopædia Britannica.
Meg Matthias
Meg Matthias is Assistant Digital Editor and Producer at Encyclopædia Britannica. She graduated from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, in 2020 with a bachelor's degree in English.
Melissa Petruzzello
Melissa Petruzzello is Assistant Editor of Plant and Environmental Science and covers a range of content from plants, algae, and fungi, to renewable energy and environmental engineering. She has her M.S. in Plant Biology and Conservation from Northwestern University (2011) and a B.S. in Biological Science from Biola University (2008). She has worked at Britannica since 2013.  
Michael Ray
Michael Ray oversees coverage of European history and military affairs for Britannica. He earned a B.A. in history from Michigan State University in 1995. He was a teacher in the Chicago suburbs and Seoul, South Korea, prior to joining Britannica as a freelancer in 2000 and a full-time copy editor in 2003.
Michele Metych
Michele has a B.A. in English from Southeast Missouri State University and an M.A. from DePaul University. A city girl at heart, she still misses living in a place with cows and cotton. When she's not editing, reading, or researching, she travels every chance she gets.
Patricia Bauer
Patricia Bauer is an Assistant Editor at Encyclopaedia Britannica. She has a B.A. with a double major in Spanish and in theatre arts from Ripon College. She previously worked on the Britannica Book of the Year and was a member of Britannica's Copy Department.
Patrick Riley
Patrick Riley is the Senior Illustrator for Encyclopædia Britannica. He has worked at Britannica since 2007.
Piyush Bhathya
Content Analyst, Encyclopædia Britannica
Sheila Vasich
Content Analyst,  Encyclopædia Britannica.
Sherman Hollar
Associate Editor, Encyclopædia Britannica.
Shiveta Singh
Content Analyst, Encyclopædia Britannica.
Shweta Gupta
Content Analyst, Encyclopædia Britannica.
Stephen Seddon
Content Analyst, Encyclopædia Britannica.
The Information Architects of Encyclopaedia Britannica
The Information Architects maintain a master list of the topics included in the corpus of  Encyclopædia Britannica, and create and manage the relationships between them.
Veenu Setia
Content Analyst, Encyclopædia Britannica.
Wonyoung Jang
Wonyoung Jang is an Editorial Intern at Encylopædia Britannica in 2021. He is expected to graduate from the University of Chicago in 2022 with bachelor’s degrees in English Language and Literature, Gender and Sexuality Studies, and Education and Society.
World Data Editors
Britannica's World Data editors help provide a statistical portrait of some 220 countries and dependencies of the world, at a level appropriate to the significance of each.
Britannica's editorial process
Editorial quality has been Encyclopaedia Britannica's top priority since the company was founded in 1768. Britannica’s methods for ensuring quality have changed over time, but their purpose has remained constant: to generate and validate content that represents the best, most up-to-date knowledge available. Readers today may find it amusing that Britannica's first edition, published in 1768, says about California that "[i]t is uncertain whether it be a peninsula or an island." But for the small group of men in Scotland who were responsible for that first edition, this claim was the result of the best research possible at that time with the resources accessible to them. Over the following two centuries, Britannica established its reputation for clarity, accuracy, objectivity, and fairness by drawing on the best authorities of every era, whether the latest published scholarship or the most respected Nobel Prize winners.

Britannica's editorial staff is responsible for developing and approving the content that appears in the company's products. Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on content in those areas or via study for an advanced degree. They write new content and select, verify, and edit content received from contributors. Britannica's media editors produce and acquire images, maps, videos, and more for Britannica’s products. Britannica's World Data editors research and compile statistical information using a variety of authoritative sources. Britannica’s copy editors fact-check and copyedit both new and substantially updated older content, ensuring the veracity of hard facts, the clarity of prose, and the consistency of style.

But Britannica is not just its editorial staff. Britannica has long fostered vigorous interaction between its staff and its advisers, contributors, and audience. The feedback loop between these groups is today more active and beneficial than ever, and it guides all aspects of content development. Britannica's goal is to share the best, most up-to-date knowledge that its audience wants, and its editors use a variety of strategies to accomplish that goal: they may commission original encyclopedic articles from experts on topics never before described in Britannica, or they may produce videos that explain complex ideas simply, or they may acquire high-caliber content that has been published elsewhere. Regardless of its type or origin, all such content must meet Britannica's high editorial standards.

Once this content goes online, its life cycle is only just beginning. Interaction between readers, contributors, and editors produces revisions and updates that maintain Britannica’s standards. Changes to encyclopedic articles are displayed alongside those articles, so as to make the history of each article transparent and to give credit to those who have contributed to the creation and revision of articles. Britannica is committed to fairness and responsibility not only in its content but in the manner in which its content is revised; no revision to content can go online without careful review by Britannica's editors. Britannica's editors are also responsible for evaluating and responding to concerns raised about content. Editors, working closely with copy editors and other staff, approach revisions with the same meticulousness that they bring to their creation of new content: all of their effort is aimed at ensuring that Britannica's content is clear, accurate, objective, and fair.

Play video on original page
Learn about Encyclopaedia Britannica's editorial process
Encyclopaedia Britannica's editorial team strives to make content clear, accurate, objective, and fair.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
NEW CONTENT FROM OUR EDITORS
World Heritage Sites in France and Italy
There are a wide variety of UNESCO World Heritage sites in France and Italy. This puzzle focuses on just a few, but you'll...
CROSSWORD PUZZLE
synesthesia
synesthesia, neuropsychological trait in which the stimulation of one sense causes the automatic experience of another sense....
ARTICLE
fingerprint
fingerprint, impression made by the papillary ridges on the ends of the fingers and thumbs. Fingerprints afford an infallible...
ARTICLE
Who Said It? Writers and Musicians Quiz
“Works of art are our chief means of breaking bread with the dead.” Do you know who said this?
QUIZ
How Does the Olympic Torch Stay Lit?
Wind, rain, snow, or shine, the Olympic torch is expected to stay lit as it travels from Greece to the site of the Games....
DEMYSTIFIED
Germany
Germany, country of north-central Europe, traversing the continent’s main physical divisions, from the outer ranges of the...
ARTICLE
coast guard
coast guard, a force, usually naval, that enforces a country’s maritime laws and assists vessels wrecked or in distress on...
ARTICLE
GPS
GPS, space-based radio-navigation system that broadcasts highly accurate navigation pulses to users on or near Earth. In...
ARTICLE
Racket and Paddle Sports
Test your knowledge of racket and paddle sports in this crossword puzzle.
CROSSWORD PUZZLE
Puerto Montt
Puerto Montt, port and city, southern Chile. It lies at the head of Reloncaví Bay (an inlet of the Pacific Ocean), adjacent...
ARTICLE
Who Said It? Women Musicians, Artists, and Writers
“Art transcends its limitations only by staying within them.” Can you match these writers and musicians to their quotes?
QUIZ
Just How Many Oceans Are There?
The largest bodies of water on Earth are the oceans. But there is some debate over how many distinct oceans there are.
DEMYSTIFIED
Uluru/Ayers Rock
Uluru/Ayers Rock, giant monolith, one of the tors (isolated masses of weathered rock) in southwestern Northern Territory,...
ARTICLE
Weaponry, Energy, and Power Systems Quiz
Which English engineer and inventor built and patented the first steam engine? Who developed the first process for manufacturing steel inexpensively?...
QUIZ
The Great Moon Hoax of 1835 Was Sci-Fi Passed Off as News
On August 25, 1835, the New York Sun began running a satiric story about life on the Moon. The problem? People believed...
#WTFACT
space debris
space debris, artificial material that is orbiting Earth but is no longer functional. This material can be as large as a...
ARTICLE
Inspire your inbox – Sign up for daily fun facts about this day in history, updates, and special offers.
By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Click here to view our Privacy Notice. Easy unsubscribe links are provided in every email.

About Us & Legal Info
Partner Program
Contact Us
Privacy Notice
Terms of Use
©2021 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.