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Orontes River, Arabic Nahr al-ʿĀṣī, river in southwestern Asia, draining a large part of the northern Levant into the Mediterranean Sea. From its source in Al-Biqāʿ (Bekaa) Valley of central Lebanon, the river flows northward between the parallel ranges of the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountains into Syria, where it has been dammed to form Lake Qaṭṭīnah. Northwest of Ḥamāh the Orontes crosses the fertile Al-Ghāb, once a swampy depression, and enters Turkey, where it bends westward and empties into the sea near Samandağı. Largely unnavigable for most of its 250-mile (400-km) length, it is nonetheless an important source of irrigation water, especially between Homs and Ḥamāh and in Al-Ghāb. Major tributaries of the Orontes include the Karasu and ʿAfrīn rivers. Homs, Ḥamāh, and the ancient Greek city of Antioch (Antakya) are the largest riparian settlements.
Michael Kerrigan Michael Kerrigan has written many books, including volumes on Greece and the Mediterranean and Rome for the BBC Ancient Civilizations series and Ancients in their Own Words (2009). Coauthor of...
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Battle of Kadesh, (1275 BC), major battle between the Egyptians under Ramses II and the Hittites under Muwatallis, in Syria, southwest of Ḥimṣ, on the Orontes River. In one of the world’s largest chariot battles, fought beside the Orontes River, Pharaoh Ramses II sought to wrest Syria from the Hittites and recapture the Hittite-held city of Kadesh. There was a day of carnage as some 5,000 chariots charged into the fray, but no outright victor. The battle led to the world’s first recorded peace treaty.
Resolved to pursue the expansionist policy introduced by his father, Seti I, Ramses invaded Hittite territories in Palestine and pushed on into Syria. Near the Orontes River, his soldiers captured two men who said they were deserters from the Hittite force, which now lay some way off, outside Aleppo. This was reassuring, since the impetuous pharaoh had pushed well ahead of his main army with an advance guard of 20,000 infantry and 2,000 chariots. Unfortunately, the "deserters" were loyal agents of his enemy. Led by their High Prince, Muwatallis, the Hittites were at hand—with 40,000 foot soldiers and 3,000 chariots—and swiftly attacked. Their heavy, three-horse chariots smashed into the Egyptian vanguard, scattering its lighter chariots and the ranks behind. An easy victory seemed assured, and the Hittites dropped their guard and set about plundering their fallen enemy. Calm and determined, Ramses quickly remarshalled his men and launched a counterattack.
With their shock advantage gone, the Hittite chariots seemed slow and ungainly; the lighter Egyptian vehicles outmaneuvered them with ease. Ramses, bold and decisive, managed to pluck from the jaws of defeat if not victory, then at least an honorable draw. Both sides claimed Kadesh as a triumph, and Ramses had his temples festooned with celebratory reliefs. In truth, the outcome was inconclusive. So much so that, fifteen years later, the two sides returned to Kadesh to agree to a nonaggression pact—the first known example in history.
The biased Egyptian version of the battle was recorded on numerous temples by Ramses, but a Hittite version excavated at Boghazköy has enabled a truer assessment of the battle.
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