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Coronavirus (COVID-19)
Guidance and support
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Coronavirus (COVID-19)
Guidance
Coronavirus: how to stay safe and help prevent the spread
Find out how to stay safe and help prevent the spread of coronavirus.
From:
Cabinet Office
Published
29 March 2021
Last updated
22 July 2021 — See all updates
Applies to:
England (see guidance for Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland)
England has moved to Step 4
While cases are high and rising, everybody needs to continue to act carefully and remain cautious. This is why we are keeping in place key protections:
Although most legal restrictions have been lifted at step 4, and many people have been vaccinated, it is still possible to catch and spread COVID-19, even if you are fully vaccinated, and we are still in the third wave of this pandemic in the UK.
COVID-19 will be a feature of our lives for the foreseeable future, so we need to learn to live with it and manage the risk to ourselves and others.
As COVID-19 restrictions are lifted, it is important that we all use personal judgement to manage our own risk. All of us can play our part by exercising common sense and considering the risks. While no situation is risk free, there are actions we can take to protect ourselves and others around us. Following this guidance will help you stay safe and protect others by controlling the spread. Every action to help reduce the spread will reduce any further resurgence of the virus in the coming months.
Lifting restrictions
Most legal restrictions to control COVID-19 have been lifted at step 4. This means that:
Extra support deployed in areas receiving an enhanced response to COVID-19
In this phase of continued caution while managing the risks of COVID-19, the Government continues to work with local authorities. The Government, informed by the data, such as case rate growth, and local insights, provides national support to local areas which need an enhanced response to ensure there is no danger of the NHS facing unsustainable pressure.
The support is provided for a 5-week period, and includes the option to deliver extra testing within targeted areas, the provision of logistical support to maximise vaccine uptake, and further help for local campaigns.
This support is currently available to the following local authorities:
If you live in one of these areas you should read your local area’s COVID-19 information and advice, (linked above) to understand what it means for you.
You should also ensure you follow the guidance listed on this page on acting carefully and remaining cautious, to help protect yourself and others.
You should get vaccinated if you have not yet received the COVID-19 vaccine.
Businesses and venues
All remaining closed businesses and venues such as nightclubs and adult entertainment venues are able to reopen. All capacity limits at sporting, entertainment, or business events have been lifted.
Hospitality venues such as pubs, restaurants and bars are no longer required to provide table service or follow other social distancing rules.
All businesses should follow the principles set out in the working safely guidance. Whilst the Government is no longer instructing people to work from home if they can, the Government would expect and recommend a gradual return over the summer.
Employers still have a legal duty to manage risks to those affected by their business. The way to do this is to carry out a health and safety risk assessment, including the risk of COVID-19, and to take reasonable steps to mitigate the risks you identify. Working Safely guidance sets out a range of mitigations employers should consider including:
We encourage organisations in certain settings to use the NHS COVID Pass as a condition of entry, in order to reduce the risk of COVID-19. This will especially be the case in large, crowded settings (such as nightclubs) where people are likely to be in close proximity to others outside their household.
To support organisations and individuals in these settings, the NHS COVID Pass will be made available through the NHS App, NHS.UK, or as a letter that can be requested by ringing NHS 119. Visitors will also be able to show text or email confirmation of test results. Organisations should ensure they are in compliance with all legal obligations, including on equalities.
There are some settings where the NHS COVID Pass should not be used as a condition of entry, in order to ensure access for all. This includes essential services and essential retailers which have been able to stay open throughout the pandemic.
Businesses are also encouraged to continue displaying QR codes for customers wishing to check in using the NHS COVID-19 app, or to continue collecting customer contact details to support NHS Test and Trace, however this will no longer be a legal requirement.
Keeping yourself and others safe
There are still cases of COVID-19 in England and there is a risk you could catch or pass on the virus, even if you are fully vaccinated. You are encouraged to exercise caution and consider the risks. While no situation is risk free, there are actions we can take to protect ourselves and others around us.
If you are worried about going back to a more ‘normal’ life, there is information from the NHS on how to cope with anxiety about lockdown lifting.
Get tested and self isolate
If you develop COVID-19 symptoms, self-isolate immediately and get a PCR test, even if your symptoms are mild. You should self-isolate at home while you book the test and wait for the results. You must self-isolate if you test positive. Your isolation period includes the day your symptoms started (or the day your test was taken if you do not have symptoms), and the next 10 full days. This is the law.
The most important symptoms of COVID-19 are recent onset of any of the following:
For most people, COVID-19 will be a mild illness. However, if you have any of the symptoms above, even if your symptoms are mild, stay at home and arrange to have a test.
You must also self-isolate if you are told to do so by NHS Test and Trace, for example if you have come into contact with someone who has tested positive. This remains the law, regardless of your vaccination status.
From 16 August, if you have been fully vaccinated you will be exempt from the requirement to self-isolate if you are a contact of a positive case. You will instead be advised to take a PCR test as soon as possible.
You will also be exempt from self-isolation from 16 August if you are under 18 and a contact of a positive case. As with adults, you will be advised whether a PCR test needs to be taken. If you are 18 years old you will be treated in the same way as under 18 year olds until 4 months after your 18th birthday, to allow you the opportunity to get fully vaccinated.
If you test positive you will still need to self-isolate regardless of your vaccination status or age. When self-isolating, follow the stay-at-home guidance. This will help reduce the risk of spreading COVID-19 to other members of your household and community. You must stay at home at all times and not have contact with other people. There are only very limited circumstances when you do not have to do this, such as seeking medical assistance. If you do leave your home during your period of self-isolation for a permitted reason, you should maintain social distancing and keep 2 metres apart from other people.
You may be entitled to a one-off payment of £500 through the NHS Test and Trace Support Payment scheme if you are required to stay at home and self-isolate, or you are the parent or guardian of a child who has been told to self-isolate. You should visit your local authority website for details on Test & Trace Support Payments and practical support offered in your area.
You could be fined if you do not self-isolate following notification by NHS Test & Trace.
Get vaccinated
All adults in England have now been offered at least one dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. The vaccines are safe and effective. They give you the best protection against COVID-19.
If you have not yet received the COVID-19 vaccine, you should get vaccinated. It usually takes around two to three weeks for an antibody response to develop. You need two doses of vaccine for maximum protection against COVID-19.
However, even if you have been fully vaccinated, you could still get COVID-19 and get sick - a recent PHE report shows that around 1 in 5 people who are double-vaccinated are still vulnerable to getting infected with the Delta variant and showing symptoms. You can also still spread COVID-19 to others. We all need to do what we can to reduce the spread of COVID-19 to protect others and to reduce the risk of new variants developing and spreading.
This advice will help us protect our friends, families, and communities, including those who have been vaccinated.
Using the NHS COVID-19 app
Using the NHS COVID-19 app helps stop the spread of the virus by informing you that you have been in close contact with someone who has since tested positive for COVID-19, even if you don’t know each other. The app is free and easy to use and doing so can help you protect your loved ones and others.
The app also allows people to report symptoms, order a coronavirus test, and check in to venues using a QR code. To help protect yourself and others, download and use the latest version of the NHS COVID-19 app.
Wearing a face covering
COVID-19 spreads through the air by droplets and aerosols that are exhaled from the nose and mouth of an infected person. The Government expects and recommends that people wear face coverings in crowded areas such as public transport.
Fresh air
When a person infected with COVID-19 coughs, talks or breathes, they release droplets and aerosols which can be breathed in by another person. Fresh air blows away these particles, reducing the chances of COVID-19 spreading. It’s always worth considering if you can meet outdoors or, if you’re indoors, thinking about how you can improve ventilation by letting fresh air in.
The more fresh air you let into your home or other enclosed spaces, the less likely a person is to inhale infectious particles.
You can let in fresh air by uncovering vents and opening doors and windows. Don’t prop fire doors open. If you have an extractor fan at home, (for example in your bathroom or kitchen), think about leaving it running for longer than usual with the door closed after someone has used the room. This is particularly important when meeting people you don’t live with indoors.
If you are concerned about noise, security or the costs of heating, opening windows for shorter periods of time can still help to reduce the risk of the virus spreading. Wearing extra layers can help you to keep warm. You may be able to change the layout of your room so that you do not sit close to cold draughts from open windows or doors.
Testing twice a week even if you don’t have symptoms, and using the NHS COVID Pass
Around 1 in 3 people with COVID-19 do not have any symptoms. This means they could be spreading the virus without knowing it. Testing twice a week increases the chances of detecting COVID-19 when a person is infectious, helping to make sure you don’t spread COVID-19.
Rapid lateral flow testing is available for free to anybody, but is particularly focused on those who are not fully vaccinated, those in education, and those in higher-risk settings such as the NHS, social care and prisons. People may also wish to use regular rapid testing to help manage periods of risk such as returning to the workplace, close contact in a higher risk environment or when spending prolonged time with a more vulnerable individual. You can get tests from pharmacies or online. Find out more about how to get rapid lateral flow tests.
The NHS Covid Pass allows you to check your Covid status and demonstrate that you are at lower risk of transmitting to others through full vaccination, a recent negative test, or proof of natural immunity.
If you develop COVID-19 symptoms, self-isolate immediately and get a PCR test.
Personal hygiene
Wash your hands with soap and water or use hand sanitiser regularly throughout the day. Regular hand washing is an effective way to reduce your risk of catching illnesses, including COVID-19.
It is particularly important to wash your hands:
Where possible, avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth. If you do need to touch your face (for example to put on or take off your face covering), wash or sanitise your hands before and after.
Hands touch many surfaces and can become contaminated with viruses, including COVID-19. You can transfer viruses to your eyes, nose or mouth from your hands if they are contaminated. Then viruses can enter your body and infect you. Washing or sanitising your hands removes viruses and other germs, so you’re less likely to become infected if you touch your face. Using soap and water is the most effective way to clean your hands, especially if they are visibly dirty. Use hand sanitiser if there isn’t soap and water available.
Coughing and sneezing increases the number of droplets and aerosols released by a person, the distance they travel and the time they stay in the air. A cough or sneeze of an infected person which is not covered will significantly increase the risk of infecting others around them.
These actions will reduce the spread of droplets and aerosols carrying COVID-19 and other viruses, including those that cause coughs and colds:
Staying home when unwell
If you develop COVID-19 symptoms, self-isolate immediately and get a PCR test, even if your symptoms are mild. You should self-isolate at home while you book the test and wait for the results. You must self isolate if you test positive.
If you feel unwell but don’t have COVID-19 symptoms, or your COVID-19 test is negative, you may still have an illness which could be passed on to other people.
Many common illnesses, like the flu or the common cold, are spread from one person to another. This can happen:
Staying at home until you feel better reduces the risk that you will pass on an illness to your friends, colleagues, and others in your community. This will help reduce the burden on our health services.
Close contact
The main way of spreading COVID-19 is through close contact with an infected person. When someone with COVID-19 breathes, speaks, coughs or sneezes, they release particles (droplets and aerosols) containing the virus that causes COVID-19. These particles can be breathed in by another person.
You may choose to limit the close contact you have with people you do not usually live with. You may also choose to take a free test before being in close contact to help manage periods of risk such as returning to the workplace, close contact in a higher risk environment or when spending prolonged time with a vulnerable individual.
These are personal choices which can help reduce your risk of catching or spreading COVID-19.
It is important to consider that others may wish to take a more cautious approach as we open up. We should all be considerate of this, and provide the opportunity and space for others to reduce close contacts if they wish.
Understanding the risks of COVID-19
The risk of catching or passing on COVID-19 can be higher in certain places and when doing certain activities. The main way of spreading COVID-19 is through close contact with an infected person. When someone with COVID-19 breathes, speaks, coughs or sneezes, they release particles (droplets and aerosols) containing the virus that causes COVID-19. These particles can be breathed in by another person. The particles can also land on surfaces and be passed from person to person via touch.
In general, the risk of catching or passing on COVID-19 is higher:
Some activities can also increase the risk of catching or passing on COVID-19. This happens where people are doing activities which generate more particles as they breathe heavily, such as singing, dancing, exercising or raising their voices.
The risk is greatest where these factors overlap, for example in crowded indoor spaces where people are raising their voices.
In situations where there is a higher risk of catching or passing on COVID-19, you should be particularly careful to follow the guidance on keeping yourself and others safe as we return to normality. Every little action helps to keep us all safer.
If you are clinically extremely vulnerable
Clinically extremely vulnerable people are advised to follow the same guidance as everyone else. However, as someone who is at a higher risk of becoming seriously ill if you were to catch COVID-19, you should think particularly carefully about precautions you can continue to take. These precautions are included in the guidance for the clinically extremely vulnerable.
If you are pregnant
If you are pregnant, as a minimum, you should follow the same guidance as everyone else. If you are more than 27 weeks pregnant, or if you are pregnant and have an underlying health condition that puts you at a greater risk of severe illness from COVID-19 at any point in pregnancy, you may want to consider limiting close contact with with people you do not normally meet with regularly in order to reduce the risk of catching COVID-19. You can find further advice on pregnancy and coronavirus (COVID-19) on NHS.UK.
If you are pregnant or considering pregnancy and haven’t yet been vaccinated, you are advised to get vaccinated as soon as possible, and to book your second dose as soon as you are eligible. You can find further advice on pregnancy, breastfeeding, fertility and coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccination on NHS.UK.
International travel
The Government has introduced a traffic light system for international travel. You should not travel to countries or territories on the red or amber lists.
Travelling to England from outside the UK
What you must do when you arrive in England from abroad depends on where you have been in the last 10 days before you arrive.
People planning to travel to England should follow the guidance on entering the UK.
Find out which list the country you are travelling from is on and what you need to do.
From 19 July, fully vaccinated people returning to England from amber list countries will not need to quarantine.
Travelling in the UK, Ireland and Channel Islands
There are no restrictions on travel within England.
You should check the rules at your destination if you’re planning to travel to Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland, or to Ireland or the Channel Islands as there may be restrictions in place.
Do not travel if you have COVID-19 symptoms or are self-isolating. Get a test and follow the stay at home guidance.
Published 29 March 2021
Last updated 22 July 2021 + show all updates
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England has moved to Step 4Lifting restrictionsExtra support deployed in areas receiving an enhanced response to COVID-19Businesses and venuesKeeping yourself and others safeGet tested and self isolateGet vaccinatedUsing the NHS COVID-19 appWearing a face coveringFresh airTesting twice a week even if you don’t have symptoms, and using the NHS COVID PassPersonal hygieneStaying home when unwellClose contactUnderstanding the risks of COVID-19If you are clinically extremely vulnerableIf you are pregnantInternational travelTravelling to England from outside the UKTravelling in the UK, Ireland and Channel Islands