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OPTIONS & DERIVATIVES TRADING OPTIONS TRADING STRATEGY & EDUCATION
Black-Scholes Model
By
ADAM HAYES
Reviewed by
GORDON SCOTT Updated Mar 30, 2021
What Is the Black-Scholes Model?
The Black-Scholes model, also known as the Black-Scholes-Merton (BSM) model, is a mathematical model for pricing an options contract. In particular, the model estimates the variation over time of financial instruments.
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Black-Scholes Model
Understanding Black Scholes Model
The Black-Scholes model is one of the most important concepts in modern financial theory. It was developed in 1973 by Fischer Black, Robert Merton, and Myron Scholes and is still widely used today. It is regarded as one of the best ways of determining the fair price of options. The Black-Scholes model requires five input variables: the strike price of an option, the current stock price, the time to expiration, the risk-free rate, and the volatility.
Also called Black-Scholes-Merton (BSM), it was the first widely used model for option pricing. It's used to calculate the theoretical value of options using current stock prices, expected dividends, the option's strike price, expected interest rates, time to expiration, and expected volatility.
The initial equation was introduced in Black and Scholes' 1973 paper, "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," published in the Journal of Political Economy.1 Black passed away two years before Scholes and Merton were awarded the 1997 Nobel Prize in economics for their work in finding a new method to determine the value of derivatives. (The Nobel Prize is not given posthumously; however, the Nobel committee acknowledged Black's role in the Black-Scholes model.)2
Black-Scholes posits that instruments, such as stock shares or futures contracts, will have a lognormal distribution of prices following a random walk with constant drift and volatility. Using this assumption and factoring in other important variables, the equation derives the price of a European-style call option.
The inputs for the Black-Scholes equation are volatility, the price of the underlying asset, the strike price of the option, the time until expiration of the option, and the risk-free interest rate. With these variables, it is theoretically possible for options sellers to set rational prices for the options that they are selling.
Furthermore, the model predicts that the price of heavily traded assets follows a geometric Brownian motion with constant drift and volatility. When applied to a stock option, the model incorporates the constant price variation of the stock, the time value of money, the option's strike price, and the time to the option's expiry.
Black-Scholes Assumptions
The Black-Scholes model makes certain assumptions:
While the original Black-Scholes model didn't consider the effects of dividends paid during the life of the option, the model is frequently adapted to account for dividends by determining the ex-dividend date value of the underlying stock. The model is also modified by many option-selling market makers to account for the effect of options that can be exercised before expiration.
Alternatively, firms will use a binomial or trinomial model or the Bjerksund-Stensland model for the pricing of the more commonly traded American style options.
The Black-Scholes Formula
The mathematics involved in the formula are complicated and can be intimidating. Fortunately, you don't need to know or even understand the math to use Black-Scholes modeling in your own strategies. Options traders have access to a variety of online options calculators, and many of today's trading platforms boast robust options analysis tools, including indicators and spreadsheets that perform the calculations and output the options pricing values.
The Black-Scholes call option formula is calculated by multiplying the stock price by the cumulative standard normal probability distribution function. Thereafter, the net present value (NPV) of the strike price multiplied by the cumulative standard normal distribution is subtracted from the resulting value of the previous calculation.
In mathematical notation:
C=S
t
N(d
1
)−Ke
rt
N(d
2
)
where:
d
1
σ
s
t
lnK
S
t
+(r+2
σ
v
2
t
and
1
s
d
2
t
where:
C=Call option price
S=Current stock (or other underlying) price
K=Strike price
r=Risk-free interest rate
t=Time to maturity
N=A normal distribution
Volatility Skew
Black-Scholes assumes stock prices follow a lognormal distribution because asset prices cannot be negative (they are bounded by zero).
Often, asset prices are observed to have significant right skewness and some degree of kurtosis (fat tails). This means high-risk downward moves often happen more often in the market than a normal distribution predicts.
The assumption of lognormal underlying asset prices should show that implied volatilities are similar for each strike price according to the Black-Scholes model. However, since the market crash of 1987, implied volatilities for at-the-money options have been lower than those further out of the money or far in the money. The reason for this phenomenon is the market is pricing in a greater likelihood of a high volatility move to the downside in the markets.
This has led to the presence of the volatility skew. When the implied volatilities for options with the same expiration date are mapped out on a graph, a smile or skew shape can be seen. Thus, the Black-Scholes model is not efficient for calculating implied volatility.
Limitations of the Black-Scholes Model
As stated previously, the Black-Scholes model is only used to price European options and does not take into account that U.S. options could be exercised before the expiration date. Moreover, the model assumes dividends and risk-free rates are constant, but this may not be true in reality. The model also assumes volatility remains constant over the option's life, which is not the case because volatility fluctuates with the level of supply and demand.
Additionally, the other assumptions—that there are no transaction costs or taxes; that the risk-free interest rate is constant for all maturities; that short selling of securities with use of proceeds is permitted; and that there are no risk-less arbitrage opportunities—can lead to prices that deviate from the real world where these factors are present.
Frequently Asked Questions
What Does the Black-Scholes Model Do?
Black-Scholes, also known as Black-Scholes-Merton (BSM), was the first widely used model for option pricing. Based on the assumption that instruments, such as stock shares or futures contracts, will have a lognormal distribution of prices following a random walk with constant drift and volatility, and factoring in other important variables, the equation derives the price of a European-style call option. It does so by subtracting the net present value (NPV) of the strike price multiplied by the cumulative standard normal distribution from the product of the stock price and the cumulative standard normal probability distribution function.
What Are the Inputs for Black-Scholes Model?
The inputs for the Black-Scholes equation are volatility, the price of the underlying asset, the strike price of the option, the time until expiration of the option, and the risk-free interest rate. With these variables, it is theoretically possible for options sellers to set rational prices for the options that they are selling.
What Assumptions Does Black-Scholes Model Make?
The Black-Scholes model makes certain assumptions. Chief among them is that the option is European and can only be exercised at expiration. Other assumptions are that no dividends are paid out during the life of the option; markets are efficient (i.e., market movements cannot be predicted); that no transaction costs in buying the option; that risk-free rate and volatility of the underlying are known and constant; and that the returns on the underlying asset are log-normally distributed.
What Are the Limitations of Black-Scholes Model?
The Black-Scholes model is only used to price European options and does not take into account that U.S. options could be exercised before the expiration date. Moreover, the model assumes dividends and risk-free rates are constant, but this may not be true in reality. The model also assumes volatility remains constant over the option's life, which is not the case because volatility fluctuates with the level of supply and demand.
Additionally, the other assumptions—that there are no transaction costs or taxes; that the risk-free interest rate is constant for all maturities; that short selling of securities with use of proceeds is permitted; and that there are no risk-less arbitrage opportunities—can lead to prices that deviate from the real world where these factors are present.
Black, Scholes, Merton. © KhanAcademy
ARTICLE SOURCES
Related Terms
Heston Model Definition
The Heston Model, named after Steve Heston, is a type of stochastic volatility model used by financial professionals to price European options. more
Option Pricing Theory Definition
Option pricing theory uses variables (stock price, exercise price, volatility, interest rate, time to expiration) to theoretically value an option. more
Local Volatility (LV)
Local volatility (LV) is a volatility measure used in quantitative analysis that provides a more comprehensive view of risk when pricing options.more
Put-Call Parity Definition
Put-call parity is the relationship between the price of European put and call options with the same underlying asset, strike price, and expiration. more
The Merton Model Analysis Tool
The Merton model is an analysis tool used to evaluate the credit risk of a corporation's debt. Analysts and investors utilize the Merton model to understand the financial capability of a company. more
Time-Varying Volatility Definition
Time-varying volatility refers to the fluctuations in volatility over different time periods. more
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OPTIONS TRADING STRATEGY & EDUCATION
Understanding How Options Are Priced
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Circumventing the Limitations of Black-Scholes
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How Do Dividends Affect Option Prices?
ADVANCED OPTIONS TRADING CONCEPTS
Implied Volatility
OPTIONS TRADING STRATEGY & EDUCATION
How Is Implied Volatility Used in the Black-Scholes Formula?
OPTIONS & DERIVATIVES TRADING
How is the price of a derivative determined?
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