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A growing body of scholarship on the political and economic subordination of women in the Muslim world has argued that widespread patriarchal attitudes toward women’s roles in public life can be… Expand
Political Science Research and Methods
Numerous empirical studies of the relationship between popular support for Islamism and support for democracy and violence have yielded inconclusive results. We suspect that this is largely because… Expand
Does religion inevitably promote support for militant politics? Using a new and unique data set compiled from a nationally representative survey in Lebanon, we examine the conditions under which… Expand
Polarization – defined as the difference in policy preferences along the salient axis of political competition – among non-regime elite actors has important consequences for successful democratic… Expand
How does political polarization occur under repressive conditions? Drawing on psychological theories of social identity, I posit that the nature of repression -- whether it targets a specific group,… Expand
Scholars have long argued that religion plays a powerful role in politics, at times motivating collective action for change, at others eliciting compliance with the status quo. Religion’s effect is… Expand
How do citizens engage with electoral institutions after democratic backslide? Following Hirschman (1970) we conceptualize three options open to citizens: abstention (exit), voice (spoilage), or… Expand
This chapter presents the book's argument in detail. It begins by reviewing existing work on three central concepts: polarization, preference formation, and repression. The chapter also highlights… Expand
This chapter details how widespread repression in Tunisia decreased polarization within the opposition between 1987 and 2010. It demonstrates the effects of widespread repression on Tunisian… Expand
International Journal of Middle East Studies
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