How to Meet WCAG (Quick Reference)
A customizable quick reference to Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2 requirements (success criteria) and techniques.
Selected Filters: WCAG 2.0: all success criteria and all techniques.

Principle 1 – Perceivable
Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive.
Guideline 1.1 – Text Alternatives
Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language.
1.1.1 Non-text ContentLevel A
All non-text content that is presented to the user has a text alternative that serves the equivalent purpose, except for the situations listed below.
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Guideline 1.2 – Time-based Media
Provide alternatives for time-based media.
1.2.1 Audio-only and Video-only (Prerecorded)​Level A
For prerecorded audio-only and prerecorded video-only media, the following are true, except when the audio or video is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such:
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1.2.2 Captions (Prerecorded)​Level A
Captions are provided for all prerecorded audio content in synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such.
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1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded)​Level A
An alternative for time-based media or audio description of the prerecorded video content is provided for synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such.
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1.2.4 Captions (Live)Level AA
Captions are provided for all live audio content in synchronized media.
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1.2.5 Audio Description (Prerecorded)​Level AA
Audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media.
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1.2.6 Sign Language (Prerecorded)​Level AAA
Sign language interpretation is provided for all prerecorded audio content in synchronized media.
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1.2.7 Extended Audio Description (Prerecorded)​Level AAA
Where pauses in foreground audio are insufficient to allow audio descriptions to convey the sense of the video, extended audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media.
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1.2.8 Media Alternative (Prerecorded)​Level AAA
An alternative for time-based media is provided for all prerecorded synchronized media and for all prerecorded video-only media.
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1.2.9 Audio-only (Live)Level AAA
An alternative for time-based media that presents equivalent information for live audio-only content is provided.
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Guideline 1.3 – Adaptable
Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.
1.3.1 Info and Relationships​Level A
Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text.
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1.3.2 Meaningful SequenceLevel A
When the sequence in which content is presented affects its meaning, a correct reading sequence can be programmatically determined.
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1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics​Level A
Instructions provided for understanding and operating content do not rely solely on sensory characteristics of components such as shape, color, size, visual location, orientation, or sound.
Note 1: For requirements related to color, refer to Guideline 1.4.
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Guideline 1.4 – Distinguishable
Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.
1.4.1 Use of ColorLevel A
Color is not used as the only visual means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element.
Note 1: This success criterion addresses color perception specifically. Other forms of perception are covered in Guideline 1.3 including programmatic access to color and other visual presentation coding.
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1.4.2 Audio ControlLevel A
If any audio on a Web page plays automatically for more than 3 seconds, either a mechanism is available to pause or stop the audio, or a mechanism is available to control audio volume independently from the overall system volume level.
Note 1: Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user's ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether or not it is used to meet other success criteria) must meet this success criterion. See Conformance Requirement 5: Non-Interference.
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1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum)Level AA
The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1, except for the following:
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1.4.4 Resize textLevel AA
Except for captions and images of text, text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent without loss of content or functionality.
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1.4.5 Images of TextLevel AA
If the technologies being used can achieve the visual presentation, text is used to convey information rather than images of text except for the following:
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1.4.6 Contrast (Enhanced)​Level AAA
The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 7:1, except for the following:
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1.4.7 Low or No Background AudioLevel AAA
For prerecorded audio-only content that (1) contains primarily speech in the foreground, (2) is not an audio CAPTCHA or audio logo, and (3) is not vocalization intended to be primarily musical expression such as singing or rapping, at least one of the following is true:
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1.4.8 Visual Presentation​Level AAA
For the visual presentation of blocks of text, a mechanism is available to achieve the following:
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1.4.9 Images of Text (No Exception)Level AAA
Images of text are only used for pure decoration or where a particular presentation of text is essential to the information being conveyed.
Note 1: Logotypes (text that is part of a logo or brand name) are considered essential.
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Principle 2 – Operable
User interface components and navigation must be operable.
Guideline 2.1 – Keyboard Accessible
Make all functionality available from a keyboard.
2.1.1 KeyboardLevel A
All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where the underlying function requires input that depends on the path of the user's movement and not just the endpoints.
Note 1: This exception relates to the underlying function, not the input technique. For example, if using handwriting to enter text, the input technique (handwriting) requires path-dependent input but the underlying function (text input) does not.
Note 2: This does not forbid and should not discourage providing mouse input or other input methods in addition to keyboard operation.
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2.1.2 No Keyboard TrapLevel A
If keyboard focus can be moved to a component of the page using a keyboard interface, then focus can be moved away from that component using only a keyboard interface, and, if it requires more than unmodified arrow or tab keys or other standard exit methods, the user is advised of the method for moving focus away.
Note 1: Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user's ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether it is used to meet other success criteria or not) must meet this success criterion. See Conformance Requirement 5: Non-Interference.
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2.1.3 Keyboard (No Exception)Level AAA
All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes.
Understanding 2.1.3
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Guideline 2.2 – Enough Time
Provide users enough time to read and use content.
2.2.1 Timing AdjustableLevel A
For each time limit that is set by the content, at least one of the following is true:
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2.2.2 Pause, Stop, HideLevel A
For moving, blinking, scrolling, or auto-updating information, all of the following are true:
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2.2.3 No TimingLevel AAA
Timing is not an essential part of the event or activity presented by the content, except for non-interactive synchronized media and real-time events.
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2.2.4 Interruptions​Level AAA
Interruptions can be postponed or suppressed by the user, except interruptions involving an emergency.
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2.2.5 Re-authenticating​Level AAA
When an authenticated session expires, the user can continue the activity without loss of data after re-authenticating.
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Guideline 2.3 – Seizures and Physical Reactions
Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures or physical reactions.
2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below ThresholdLevel A
Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period, or the flash is below the general flash and red flash thresholds.
Note 1: Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user's ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether it is used to meet other success criteria or not) must meet this success criterion. See Conformance Requirement 5: Non-Interference.
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2.3.2 Three FlashesLevel AAA
Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period.
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Guideline 2.4 – Navigable
Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are.
2.4.1 Bypass BlocksLevel A
A mechanism is available to bypass blocks of content that are repeated on multiple Web pages.
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2.4.2 Page TitledLevel A
Web pages have titles that describe topic or purpose.
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2.4.3 Focus OrderLevel A
If a Web page can be navigated sequentially and the navigation sequences affect meaning or operation, focusable components receive focus in an order that preserves meaning and operability.
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2.4.4 Link Purpose (In Context)Level A
The purpose of each link can be determined from the link text alone or from the link text together with its programmatically determined link context, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general.
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2.4.5 Multiple WaysLevel AA
More than one way is available to locate a Web page within a set of Web pages except where the Web Page is the result of, or a step in, a process.
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2.4.6 Headings and LabelsLevel AA
Headings and labels describe topic or purpose.
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2.4.7 Focus VisibleLevel AA
Any keyboard operable user interface has a mode of operation where the keyboard focus indicator is visible.
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2.4.8 LocationLevel AAA
Information about the user's location within a set of Web pages is available.
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2.4.9 Link Purpose (Link Only)Level AAA
A mechanism is available to allow the purpose of each link to be identified from link text alone, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general.
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2.4.10 Section HeadingsLevel AAA
Section headings are used to organize the content.
Note 1: "Heading" is used in its general sense and includes titles and other ways to add a heading to different types of content.
Note 2: This success criterion covers sections within writing, not user interface components. User Interface components are covered under Success Criterion 4.1.2.
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Guideline 2.5 – Input Modalities
Make it easier for users to operate functionality through various inputs beyond keyboard.
Principle 3 – Understandable
Information and the operation of the user interface must be understandable.
Guideline 3.1 – Readable
Make text content readable and understandable.
3.1.1 Language of PageLevel A
The default human language of each Web page can be programmatically determined.
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3.1.2 Language of PartsLevel AA
The human language of each passage or phrase in the content can be programmatically determined except for proper names, technical terms, words of indeterminate language, and words or phrases that have become part of the vernacular of the immediately surrounding text.
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3.1.3 Unusual WordsLevel AAA
A mechanism is available for identifying specific definitions of words or phrases used in an unusual or restricted way, including idioms and jargon.
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3.1.4 Abbreviations​Level AAA
A mechanism for identifying the expanded form or meaning of abbreviations is available.
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3.1.5 Reading LevelLevel AAA
When text requires reading ability more advanced than the lower secondary education level after removal of proper names and titles, supplemental content, or a version that does not require reading ability more advanced than the lower secondary education level, is available.
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3.1.6 Pronunciation​Level AAA
A mechanism is available for identifying specific pronunciation of words where meaning of the words, in context, is ambiguous without knowing the pronunciation.
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Guideline 3.2 – Predictable
Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways.
3.2.1 On FocusLevel A
When any user interface component receives focus, it does not initiate a change of context.
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3.2.2 On InputLevel A
Changing the setting of any user interface component does not automatically cause a change of context unless the user has been advised of the behavior before using the component.
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3.2.3 Consistent NavigationLevel AA
Navigational mechanisms that are repeated on multiple Web pages within a set of Web pages occur in the same relative order each time they are repeated, unless a change is initiated by the user.
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3.2.4 Consistent Identification​Level AA
Components that have the same functionality within a set of Web pages are identified consistently.
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3.2.5 Change on RequestLevel AAA
Changes of context are initiated only by user request or a mechanism is available to turn off such changes.
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Guideline 3.3 – Input Assistance
Help users avoid and correct mistakes.
3.3.1 Error Identification​Level A
If an input error is automatically detected, the item that is in error is identified and the error is described to the user in text.
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3.3.2 Labels or Instructions​Level A
Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input.
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3.3.3 Error Suggestion​Level AA
If an input error is automatically detected and suggestions for correction are known, then the suggestions are provided to the user, unless it would jeopardize the security or purpose of the content.
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3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data)Level AA
For Web pages that cause legal commitments or financial transactions for the user to occur, that modify or delete user-controllable data in data storage systems, or that submit user test responses, at least one of the following is true:
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3.3.5 HelpLevel AAA
Context-sensitive help is available.
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3.3.6 Error Prevention (All)Level AAA
For Web pages that require the user to submit information, at least one of the following is true:
Understanding 3.3.6
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Principle 4 – Robust
Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies.
Guideline 4.1 – Compatible
Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies.
4.1.1 ParsingLevel A
In content implemented using markup languages, elements have complete start and end tags, elements are nested according to their specifications, elements do not contain duplicate attributes, and any IDs are unique, except where the specifications allow these features.
Note 1: Start and end tags that are missing a critical character in their formation, such as a closing angle bracket or a mismatched attribute value quotation mark are not complete.
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4.1.2 Name, Role, ValueLevel A
For all user interface components (including but not limited to: form elements, links and components generated by scripts), the name and role can be programmatically determined; states, properties, and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set; and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies.
Note 1: This success criterion is primarily for Web authors who develop or script their own user interface components. For example, standard HTML controls already meet this success criterion when used according to specification.
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We welcome feedback and suggestions:
Status: Updated 04 Oct 2019. Version 3.5.1.
Lead Developer: Eric Eggert (W3C). Project Lead: Shadi Abou-Zahra (W3C).
Previous editors and developers: Gregg Vanderheiden, Loretta Guarino Reid, Ben Caldwell, Shawn Lawton Henry, Gez Lemon.
The 2019 redesign was developed by the Education and Outreach Working Group (EOWG) and the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines Working Group (WCAG WG), with support from the WAI-DEV project, a project of the European Commission IST Programme.
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Contents Filter
1.Perceivable1.1Text Alternatives1.1.1Non-text Content1.2Time-based Media1.2.1Audio-only and Video-only (Prerecorded)1.2.2Captions (Prerecorded)1.2.3Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded)1.2.4Captions (Live)1.2.5Audio Description (Prerecorded)1.2.6Sign Language (Prerecorded)1.2.7Extended Audio Description (Prerecorded)1.2.8Media Alternative (Prerecorded)1.2.9Audio-only (Live)1.3Adaptable1.3.1Info and Relationships1.3.2Meaningful Sequence1.3.3Sensory Characteristics1.3.4 Orientation1.3.5 Identify Input Purpose1.3.6 Identify Purpose1.4Distinguishable1.4.1Use of Color1.4.2Audio Control1.4.3Contrast (Minimum)1.4.4Resize text1.4.5Images of Text1.4.6Contrast (Enhanced)1.4.7Low or No Background Audio1.4.8Visual Presentation1.4.9Images of Text (No Exception)1.4.10 Reflow1.4.11 Non-text Contrast1.4.12 Text Spacing1.4.13 Content on Hover or Focus2.Operable2.1Keyboard Accessible2.1.1Keyboard2.1.2No Keyboard Trap2.1.3Keyboard (No Exception)2.1.4 Character Key Shortcuts2.2Enough Time2.2.1Timing Adjustable2.2.2Pause, Stop, Hide2.2.3No Timing2.2.4Interruptions2.2.5Re-authenticating2.2.6 Timeouts2.3Seizures and Physical Reactions2.3.1Three Flashes or Below Threshold2.3.2Three Flashes2.3.3 Animation from Interactions2.4Navigable2.4.1Bypass Blocks2.4.2Page Titled2.4.3Focus Order2.4.4Link Purpose (In Context)2.4.5Multiple Ways2.4.6Headings and Labels2.4.7Focus Visible2.4.8Location2.4.9Link Purpose (Link Only)2.4.10Section Headings2.5Input Modalities2.5.1 Pointer Gestures2.5.2 Pointer Cancellation2.5.3 Label in Name2.5.4 Motion Actuation2.5.5 Target Size2.5.6 Concurrent Input Mechanisms3.Understandable3.1Readable3.1.1Language of Page3.1.2Language of Parts3.1.3Unusual Words3.1.4Abbreviations3.1.5Reading Level3.1.6Pronunciation3.2Predictable3.2.1On Focus3.2.2On Input3.2.3Consistent Navigation3.2.4Consistent Identification3.2.5Change on Request3.3Input Assistance3.3.1Error Identification3.3.2Labels or Instructions3.3.3Error Suggestion3.3.4Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data)3.3.5Help3.3.6Error Prevention (All)4.Robust4.1Compatible4.1.1Parsing4.1.2Name, Role, Value4.1.3 Status Messages